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A review of descriptions of fauna within the Sydney Basin since the First Settlement is used to illustrate the development of monitoring surveys over the last 200 years. Information about changes in fauna populations came initially from the use of inventories, using presence/absence data, then the use of ranking population status, onto the results from short-term surveys using systematic methodology and finally from surveys undertaken over longer periods of time. Such surveys, considered as repeatable and systematic, can be classed as monitoring surveys. Several such surveys are described in this paper.

Allaby, M. 1977 A Dictionary of the Environment. The MacMillan Press Ltd, London
AXIS Environmental/AMBS Consulting 1995 Holsworthy Training Area Environmental Audit Main Report and Appendices A to H Report to Department of Defence
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R. and Poulter, R. 2003 The New Atlas of Australian Birds Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Hawthorn
Beecroft Cheltenham Civic Trust 1976 Pennant Hills Park Plan of Management
Bell, H.L. 1966. A population study of heathland birds The Emu 65: 295-304
Bell, H.L. 1983. Forty years of change in the avifauna of a Sydney suburb Australian Birds 18: 1-6
Bennett, G. 1860 Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia Being Observations Principally on the Animal and Vegetable Productions of New South Wales, New Zealand and some of the Austral Islands. Facsimile edition published 1982 by The Currawong Press, Milson's Point
Bradstock, R. and Fitzhardinge, R. 1979 Bush in the City A Report on Urban Bushland in the Sydney Metropolitan Area 2. Hornsby - Upper North Shore & Lane Cover Valley Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Sydney
Breton, W. H. 1833 Excursions in New South Wales, Western Australia and Van Diemans Land
Buchanan, R. 1980a A Plan of Management for South Turramurra Bushland South Turramurra Bushland Environment Protection, Turramurra
Buchanan, R. 1980b Mowbray Park Description and Management Mowbray Park Preservation Society
Burgin, S. and Saunders, T. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years pp 185-194 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by Lunney, D., Eby, P., Hutchings, P. and Burgin, S. 2007 Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman
Cooks River Project. 1976 Cooks River Environmental Survey and Landscape Design Cooks River Project, Total Environment Centre, Sydney
Currey, J.E.B. (editor) 1966 George Caley Reflections on the Colony of New South Wales Lansdowne Press, Melbourne
Department of Environment and Conservation 2005 Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region: The Southern Blue Mountains to the Sea Volume 1 Main Report Draft Report by Sydney Catchment Authority and Parks and Wildlife Division of the Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney
Dovey, L., Wong, V. and Bayne, P. 1997. An overview of the status and management of Rock-Wallabies ( Petrogale) in New South Wales Australian Mammalogy 19: 163-168
Elouera Bushland Natural Park Trust, 1983 A Guide to Elouera Bushland Natural Park Elouera Bushland Natural Park Trust, Hornsby
Fidlon, P.G. and Ryan, R.J. (editors) 1979 The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn 1787-1789 Australian Documents Library Pty Ltd, Sydney
Field, S.A., O'Connor, P.J., Tyre, A.J. and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Making monitoring meaningful. Austral Ecology 32: 485-491
Grant, T.R. 1998. Current and historical occurrence of Platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, around Sydney. Australian Mammalogy 20: 257-266
Grant, T.R. 2006 Platypus Studies In the Wingecarribee and Upper Nepean River Systems between 1991 and 2006, including periods of extended Operational Water Transfers during 2003-2006 Report by Education and Environment Services Pty. Ltd. to Sydney Catchment Authority
Hamlet, W.M. (editor). 1898 Handbook of Sydney and the County of Cumberland for the use of the Members of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science George Robertson & Co., Sydney
Hardy, C.J., Hardy, C.M. and Hardy, J.P. 1979. Reptiles of Dobroyd Head Reserve Koolewong December 1979: 13-18
Heyer, W.R., Donnelly, M.A., McDiarmid, R.W., Hayek, L.C. and Foster, M.S. (eds) 1994 Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity Standard Methods for Amphibians Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
Hindwood, K.A. and McGill, A.R. 1958 The Birds of Sydney, County of Cumberland, New South Wales. The Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney
Hoskin, E.S. 1991 The Birds of Sydney, County of Cumberland, New South Wales, 1770-1989 Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton
Johnson, J. 1991 A mammal study of the proposed O'Hara's Creek Nature Reserve Kenthurst, NSW. Final Report Unpublished Report
Keast, A. 1995a. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25
Keast, A. 1995b. The Sydney ornithological fraternity, 1930s-1950: anecdotes of an admirer Australian Zoologist 30: 26-32
Keast, A. 1995c. Seasonal occurrences and abundance of six common migratory waders in Botany Bay, 1942-1966, a documentation and analysis of Arnold McGill's long-term data set. Australian Zoologist 30: 34-38
Krefft, G. 1862. On snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney Trans Philos. Soc. NSW 1862: 34-60
Krefft, G. 1865. Frogs of Australia Trans Philos. Soc. NSW 1865: 16-20
Krefft, G. 1869 The Snakes of Australia; an Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of all the Known Species Facsimile edition published 1984 Lookout Publications, Brisbane
Lane Cove River State Recreation Area Trust, 1980 Lane Cove River State Recreation Area
Legg, C.J. and Nagy, L. 2006. Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78: 194-199
Lindenmayer, D. and Burgman, M. 2005 Practical Conservation Biology CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria
Morris, A.K., Tyler, V., Tyler, M., Mannes, H. and Dalby, J. 1990. A waterbird survey of the Parramatta River wetlands, Sydney, NSW. Australian Birds 23: 44 - 64
Morris, A.K. 1989. The birds of Botany Bay National Park NSW Australian Birds 23: 7 - 21
Nathan, C.V. 1952 Fauna and Flora of Vaucluse Edwards & Shaw, Sydney
National Parks and Wildlife Service 1976 Royal National Park Guide
National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1980 The River and Human Impact Hawkesbury River
National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1982 Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park Teacher's Handbook
National Parks and Wildlife Service 1986 Small mammal Fauna in Low Open Woodland, Woodland & Open Forest in Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park Unpublished Report
Nordstrom, T., 1984 Check List of Birds of Bankstown Unpublished Report
North, A.J. 1898. The Birds of the County of Cumberland in Hamlet, 1898
Parry-Jones, K. 1987 Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 10: 81-85
Rose, A.B. 1978 Flora and Fauna of North Wahroonga Bushland Unpublished Report
Shearer, W.G. and Jenkins, B.W. (eds) 1979 Resource Book for Field Studies in the Ryde District Association for Environmental Education*NSW), Sydney
Smith, P. and Smith, J. 1990. Decline of the urban Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) population in Warringah Shire, Sydney Australian Zoologist 26: 109-129
Stephens, S. 1978 The Impact of Man on the Mammals and Birds of the Lane Cove River Valley Report prepared for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. Environmental and Urban Studies Report No.34, 1978, Macquarie University
The Trustees of the Australian Museum 1962 The Natural History of Sydney. The Trustees of The Australian Museum, Sydney
Upper Middle Harbour Conservation Society, 1980 Bantry Bay The Case for Conservation prepared by The Wildlife Committee in consultation with the Department of Environmental Studies, The Australian Museum for the Upper Middle Harbour Conservation Society
Watson, I. and Novelly, P. 2004. Making the biodiversity monitoring system sustainable: Design issues for large-scale monitoring systems Austral Ecology 29: 16-30
White, A.W. 2007. Herpetofauna of the Malabar Headland Herpetofauna 37: 36-41
Wilson, D.E., Cole, F.R., Nichols, J.D., Rudran, R. and Foster, M.S. (eds) 1996 Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity Standard Methods for Mammals Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
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Contents

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References

Allaby, M. 1977 A Dictionary of the Environment. The MacMillan Press Ltd, London
AXIS Environmental/AMBS Consulting 1995 Holsworthy Training Area Environmental Audit Main Report and Appendices A to H Report to Department of Defence
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R. and Poulter, R. 2003 The New Atlas of Australian Birds Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Hawthorn
Beecroft Cheltenham Civic Trust 1976 Pennant Hills Park Plan of Management
Bell, H.L. 1966. A population study of heathland birds The Emu 65: 295-304
Bell, H.L. 1983. Forty years of change in the avifauna of a Sydney suburb Australian Birds 18: 1-6
Bennett, G. 1860 Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia Being Observations Principally on the Animal and Vegetable Productions of New South Wales, New Zealand and some of the Austral Islands. Facsimile edition published 1982 by The Currawong Press, Milson's Point
Bradstock, R. and Fitzhardinge, R. 1979 Bush in the City A Report on Urban Bushland in the Sydney Metropolitan Area 2. Hornsby - Upper North Shore & Lane Cover Valley Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Sydney
Breton, W. H. 1833 Excursions in New South Wales, Western Australia and Van Diemans Land
Buchanan, R. 1980a A Plan of Management for South Turramurra Bushland South Turramurra Bushland Environment Protection, Turramurra
Buchanan, R. 1980b Mowbray Park Description and Management Mowbray Park Preservation Society
Burgin, S. and Saunders, T. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years pp 185-194 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by Lunney, D., Eby, P., Hutchings, P. and Burgin, S. 2007 Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman
Cooks River Project. 1976 Cooks River Environmental Survey and Landscape Design Cooks River Project, Total Environment Centre, Sydney
Currey, J.E.B. (editor) 1966 George Caley Reflections on the Colony of New South Wales Lansdowne Press, Melbourne
Department of Environment and Conservation 2005 Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region: The Southern Blue Mountains to the Sea Volume 1 Main Report Draft Report by Sydney Catchment Authority and Parks and Wildlife Division of the Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney
Dovey, L., Wong, V. and Bayne, P. 1997. An overview of the status and management of Rock-Wallabies ( Petrogale) in New South Wales Australian Mammalogy 19: 163-168
Elouera Bushland Natural Park Trust, 1983 A Guide to Elouera Bushland Natural Park Elouera Bushland Natural Park Trust, Hornsby
Fidlon, P.G. and Ryan, R.J. (editors) 1979 The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn 1787-1789 Australian Documents Library Pty Ltd, Sydney
Field, S.A., O'Connor, P.J., Tyre, A.J. and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Making monitoring meaningful. Austral Ecology 32: 485-491
Grant, T.R. 1998. Current and historical occurrence of Platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, around Sydney. Australian Mammalogy 20: 257-266
Grant, T.R. 2006 Platypus Studies In the Wingecarribee and Upper Nepean River Systems between 1991 and 2006, including periods of extended Operational Water Transfers during 2003-2006 Report by Education and Environment Services Pty. Ltd. to Sydney Catchment Authority
Hamlet, W.M. (editor). 1898 Handbook of Sydney and the County of Cumberland for the use of the Members of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science George Robertson & Co., Sydney
Hardy, C.J., Hardy, C.M. and Hardy, J.P. 1979. Reptiles of Dobroyd Head Reserve Koolewong December 1979: 13-18
Heyer, W.R., Donnelly, M.A., McDiarmid, R.W., Hayek, L.C. and Foster, M.S. (eds) 1994 Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity Standard Methods for Amphibians Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
Hindwood, K.A. and McGill, A.R. 1958 The Birds of Sydney, County of Cumberland, New South Wales. The Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney
Hoskin, E.S. 1991 The Birds of Sydney, County of Cumberland, New South Wales, 1770-1989 Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton
Johnson, J. 1991 A mammal study of the proposed O'Hara's Creek Nature Reserve Kenthurst, NSW. Final Report Unpublished Report
Keast, A. 1995a. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25
Keast, A. 1995b. The Sydney ornithological fraternity, 1930s-1950: anecdotes of an admirer Australian Zoologist 30: 26-32
Keast, A. 1995c. Seasonal occurrences and abundance of six common migratory waders in Botany Bay, 1942-1966, a documentation and analysis of Arnold McGill's long-term data set. Australian Zoologist 30: 34-38
Krefft, G. 1862. On snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney Trans Philos. Soc. NSW 1862: 34-60
Krefft, G. 1865. Frogs of Australia Trans Philos. Soc. NSW 1865: 16-20
Krefft, G. 1869 The Snakes of Australia; an Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of all the Known Species Facsimile edition published 1984 Lookout Publications, Brisbane
Lane Cove River State Recreation Area Trust, 1980 Lane Cove River State Recreation Area
Legg, C.J. and Nagy, L. 2006. Why most conservation monitoring is, but need not be, a waste of time. Journal of Environmental Management 78: 194-199
Lindenmayer, D. and Burgman, M. 2005 Practical Conservation Biology CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria
Morris, A.K., Tyler, V., Tyler, M., Mannes, H. and Dalby, J. 1990. A waterbird survey of the Parramatta River wetlands, Sydney, NSW. Australian Birds 23: 44 - 64
Morris, A.K. 1989. The birds of Botany Bay National Park NSW Australian Birds 23: 7 - 21
Nathan, C.V. 1952 Fauna and Flora of Vaucluse Edwards & Shaw, Sydney
National Parks and Wildlife Service 1976 Royal National Park Guide
National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1980 The River and Human Impact Hawkesbury River
National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1982 Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park Teacher's Handbook
National Parks and Wildlife Service 1986 Small mammal Fauna in Low Open Woodland, Woodland & Open Forest in Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park Unpublished Report
Nordstrom, T., 1984 Check List of Birds of Bankstown Unpublished Report
North, A.J. 1898. The Birds of the County of Cumberland in Hamlet, 1898
Parry-Jones, K. 1987 Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 10: 81-85
Rose, A.B. 1978 Flora and Fauna of North Wahroonga Bushland Unpublished Report
Shearer, W.G. and Jenkins, B.W. (eds) 1979 Resource Book for Field Studies in the Ryde District Association for Environmental Education*NSW), Sydney
Smith, P. and Smith, J. 1990. Decline of the urban Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) population in Warringah Shire, Sydney Australian Zoologist 26: 109-129
Stephens, S. 1978 The Impact of Man on the Mammals and Birds of the Lane Cove River Valley Report prepared for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. Environmental and Urban Studies Report No.34, 1978, Macquarie University
The Trustees of the Australian Museum 1962 The Natural History of Sydney. The Trustees of The Australian Museum, Sydney
Upper Middle Harbour Conservation Society, 1980 Bantry Bay The Case for Conservation prepared by The Wildlife Committee in consultation with the Department of Environmental Studies, The Australian Museum for the Upper Middle Harbour Conservation Society
Watson, I. and Novelly, P. 2004. Making the biodiversity monitoring system sustainable: Design issues for large-scale monitoring systems Austral Ecology 29: 16-30
White, A.W. 2007. Herpetofauna of the Malabar Headland Herpetofauna 37: 36-41
Wilson, D.E., Cole, F.R., Nichols, J.D., Rudran, R. and Foster, M.S. (eds) 1996 Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity Standard Methods for Mammals Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington
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