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Including marine and fresh water fish, nearly 1200 species of native vertebrates occur or are reported to have occurred as wild or free-living animals within the Greater Sydney Region; an area of more than 2,500 km2 encompassing both the most densely populated city in Australia and World Heritage Wilderness. Sydney Harbour alone has a fish fauna of nearly 600 species. Almost all of the free-living vertebrates found in the Region are native to Australia, with fewer than 40 species being introductions to the continent. To a considerable extent, the Region owes the biological richness of its native vertebrates to large expanses of native vegetation on the urban perimeter, with many fewer species maintaining breeding populations in the Region's urban, suburban and rural terrestrial habitats as commensals of human society. A large proportion of the latter, particularly among birds, are species exotic to the region or which originally occurred in small numbers and have benefited from Sydney's urbanization. However, the greatest vertebrate biological diversity in the Region's more developed areas is the vast array of exotic fish, reptiles, birds and mammals, including Australian species exotic to the Region, kept by people as companion animals, pets and working animals (e.g., racehorses, livestock, those in zoos and animal parks, laboratory rats) and their feral counterparts. These animals constitute by far the greatest diversity, if not abundance, of terrestrial vertebrates in the Sydney Region and interact significantly with the city's culture, ecology and economy. They also pose a continuing risk of establishing feral populations or acting as conduits of disease and pathogens into native wildlife suggesting a need for much better accounting and monitoring of their numbers than currently occurs. Together with the Region's indigenous flora and fauna, Sydney's exotic plants and animals create a ‘hot spot for biodiversity’ exceeding any natural area in its richness, with a total species richness of higher plants and vertebrates in excess of 10,000 species. Recognition of the importance of non-native animals (and plants) to urban society and ecosystems is overdue. Moreover, in an era of accelerating habitat loss, human population growth, urban expansion and climate change the role of cities in conserving global biodiversity may prove critical. Zoologists and conservation biologists already accept the role of zoos in international and national conservation efforts and it is time to accept the importance for conservation of all the other species held in captivity by people. We may be unwilling to accept companion animals and exotic species as ‘wildlife’, but we cannot deny their existence as part of the urban fauna nor their importance to urban lifestyles. Equally, the urban landscape can be important for the conservation of continental biodiversity by providing additional habitat for native animals and plants and by bringing city dwellers into contact with native species which they might not otherwise encounter or even be aware of. Thus, the conservation and management of an urban fauna is fundamentally different from that required outside the urban environment, with not only a far greater diversity of species to be responsible for, but one with very different cultural, educational and social objectives.

Aldhous, P. 2007. Danger, exotic pets on the loose. New Scientist 195: 8-9.
Attenbrow, V. 2002 Sydney's Aboriginal Past. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Banks, P. B. 2004. Population viability analysis in urban wildlife management: modelling management options for Sydney's quarantined bandicoots. Pp. 70-77 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Banks, P. B. and Bryant, J. V. 2007. Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas. Biology Letters 3 (6): 611-613.
Bell, H. 1965. A population study of heathland birds. Emu 295-304.
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100,000 map sheet. Cunninghamiana 3: 677-799
Black, M., Mooney, S. and Haberle, S. 2007. The fire, human and climate nexus of the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The Holocene 17: 469-480.
Burbidge, A. and McKenzie, N. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australian vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-98.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S. and Saunders, T. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years. Pp 185-194 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Catterall, C. P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Clayton, M., Wombey, J., Mason, I., Chesser, R. and Wells, A. 2006. CSIRO List of Australian Vertebrates. CSIRO Publ., Collingwood.
DEC (NSW). 2004. The Vertebrate Fauna of Lane Cove National Park. Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Hurstville.
DECC. 2007. Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region, Vols. 1-5. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville.
DIPNR. 2004. Biodiversity of the Georges River Catchment: Terrestrial Biodiversity. Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW), Sydney.
Doupe, R. and Burrows, D. 2008. Thirty years later, should we be more concerned for the ongoing invasion of Mozambique Tilapia in Australia? Pacific Conservation Biology 14: 235-37.
Egan, K.H., Farrell J.R. & D. Pepper-Edwards. 1997. Historical and seasonal changes in the community of forest birds at Longneck Lagoon nature reserve, Scheyville, New South Wales. Corella 21: 1-16.
Ehrlich, P. R. 2007. Urban countryside biogeography: a decade of comparing the avifauna of a Sydney suburb and reserve. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 69-73.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: a case study in western Sydney, pp. 197-204. in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Flannery, T. 1994 The Future Eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
Ford, H. A., Barrett, G., Saunders, D. A. and Recher, H. F. 2001. Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biological Conservation 97: 71-88.
Frith, H. J. 1973 Wildlife Conservation. Angus and Robertson Pty Ltd: Sydney.
Goth, A. Nicol, K, Ross, G. and Shields, J. 2006. Present and past distribution of Australian Brush-turkeys Alectura lathami in New South Wales - implications for management. Pacific Conservation Biology 12: 22-30.
Gordon, J. 2001. The Horse Industry - Contributing to the Australian Economy. Report to the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra. Publ. No. 01/083.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Reptiles of the Sydney Region. Three Sisters Productions, Winmallee.
Hindwood, K. A. and McGill, A. R. 1958 The Birds of Sydney. The Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W., Sydney
Hodgson, P., French, K. and Major, R. 2007. Avian movement across abrupt ecological edges: Differential responses to housing density in an urban matrix. Landscape and Urban Planning 79: 266-272.
Holmes, R. T. and Sherry, T. W. 1988. Assessing population trends of New Hampshire forest birds: Local vs. regional patterns. Auk 105: 756-768.
Hoskin, E., Hindwood, K. and McGill, A. 1991 The Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Hutchings, P. 2004. The conservation of urban marine/estuarine wetlands - conflicts and resolutions. Pp 190-194 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Jarman, P. J. and K. A. Johnson. 1977. Exotic mammals, indigenous mammals, and land use. Proceedings Ecological Society of Australia 10, 145-166.
Johnson, C. 2006 Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jones, R. 1969. ‘Firestick farming’. Australian Natural History 16: 224-228.
Keast, A. 1995a. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 30 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Keast, A. 1995b. Seasonal occurrences and abundances of six common migratory waders in Botany Bay, 1942-1966, a documentation and analysis of Arnold McGill's long-term data set. Australian Zoologist 30: 34-38.
Kinnear, J., Onus, M. and Bromilow, R. 1988. Fox control and rock-wallaby population dynamics. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 435-50.
Kohen, J. L. 1998. Aboriginal environmental impacts in the Hawkesbury River area. Pp. 11-20 in The Improvers' Legacy: Environmental Studies of the Hawkesbury. edited by J. Powell. Deerubbin Press, Berowra Heights.
Leishman, A. J. 2000. A long-term banding study of birds in Spotted Gum forest near Campbelltown, New South Wales. Corella 24: 6-12
Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 481-501.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004a. Urban wildlife management: an emerging discipline. Pp 1-7 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004b. Urban wildlife management: forming an Australian synthesis. Pp 230-247 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D., Eby, P., Hutchings, P. and Burgin, S. (eds) 2007 Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds) 2002 A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman and Sydney.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
McDonald, J. 1992. Aboriginal usage of the Hawkesbury River in prehistory. Pp. 3-35 in Prehistory, Landscape, Fauna, Vol.II. Historic Environmental Changes Study. Water Board, Sydney-Illawarra-Blue Mountains.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1998. Koala population, Pittwater local government area - endangered population listing: Final determination. NSW Government, Sydney.
NPWS 1997. Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey (UBBS), unpublished report, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville
Parsons, H., French, K and Major, R.E. 2003. The influence of remnant bushland on the composition of suburban bird assemblages in Australia. Landscape and Urban Planning 66: 43-56.
Parsons, H. and Major, R.E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp 211-215 in Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney, and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Parsons, H., Major, R. and French, K. 2006. Species interactions and habitat associations of birds inhabiting urban areas of Sydney, Australia. Austral Ecology 31: 217-227.
Pyke, G. H. and H. F. Recher. 1986. Relationships between nectar production and seasonal patterns of density and nesting of resident honeyeaters in heathland near Sydney. Australian Journal of Ecology 11: 195-200.
Pyke, G. H. and Recher, H. F. 1988. Seasonal patterns of capture rate and resource abundance for honeyeaters and silvereyes in heathland near Sydney. Emu 88: 33-42
Recher, H.F. 1969. On the relation between bird species diversity and habitat diversity in Australia and North America. American Naturalist 103: 75-79.
Recher, H.F. 1971. Sharing of habitat by three congeneric honeyeaters. Emu 71, 147-152.
Recher, H. F. 1972. The vertebrate fauna of Sydney. Proceedings Ecological Society Australia 7: 79-87.
Recher, H. F. 1999. The state of Australia's avifauna: a personal opinion and prediction for the new millennium. Australian Zoologist 31: 11-27.
Recher, H. F. 2002a. Challenges for nature conservation. Australian Zoologist 32: 112-116.
Recher, H. F. 2002b. Scientists in the wilderness. Australian Zoologist 32: 139-149.
Recher, H. F. 2003a. Where water and land meet. Pp. iii-vi inConserving Marine Environments: Out of Sight, Out of Mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Recher, H. F. 2003b. WildCountry. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 221-222.
Recher, H. F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Recher, H. F. 2007. Conservation challenge of dispersive fauna. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 81-83.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E. and Calver, M. 2002. Resource partitioning and the comparative foraging ecology of five species of ground-pouncing birds in Western Australian eucalypt woodlands. Ornithological Science 1: 29-40.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A., and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment; reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-42.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A., Rosen, S. and Attenbrow, V. 1998. Human settlement of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment; Impact on the biota. Pp. 21-38 in ‘The Improvers’ Legacy: Environmental Studies of the Hawkesbury. edited by J. Powell. Deerubbin Press, Berowra Heights, NSW.
Recher, H. F. and Lim, L. 1990. A review of the status of Australia's terrestrial vertebrate fauna. Proceedings Ecological Society Australia 16: 287-301.
Recher, H. F. and Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long-term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 1-13.
Rosen, S. 1995 Losing Ground: An Environmental History of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment. Hale & Iremonger, Sydney.
Scott, L., Hume, I and Dickman, C. 1999. Ecology and populations biology of long-nosed bandicoots ( Perameles nasuta) at North Head, Sydney Harbour National Park. Wildlife Research 26: 805-21.
Shea, G. 2006. The rise and rise of reptiles as companion animals. How can the profession keep up? Conference Poster accessed 30 March 2008 at www.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/partners/conference06/Abstracts/Glen%20Shea.
Short, J. and Smith, A. 1994. Mammal decline and recovery in Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 288-97.
Smith, A. P. and. Quin, D.G. 1996. Patterns and causes of extinction and decline in Australian conilurine rodents. Biological Conservation 77: 243 - 267.
State of the Environment Advisory Council (SEAC) 1996 Australia State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO Publ., Collingwood.
Strahan, R. (ed.). 1995 The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Sydney.
Swan, G. 1990 A Field Guide to the Snakes and Lizards of New South Wales. ThreeSisters. Winmalee, N.S.W.
Terborgh, J. W. 1980. The conservation status of Neotropical migrants: present and future. Pp. 21-30 in Migrant Birds in the Neotropics: Ecology, Behavior, Distribution and Conservation. edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Theodoropoulus, D. I. 2003 An Iconoclast's View of Biological Invasions. Avvar Books, Blythe, California.
Trueman, C., Field, J., Dortch, J., Charles, B. and Wroe, S. 2005. Prolonged coexistence of humans and megafauna in Pleistocene Australia. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 102: 8331-35.
West, R., Brown, A., and Hall, K. 2007 Review of Alien Fish Monitoring Techniques, Indicators and Protocols: Implications for National Monitoring of Australia's Inland River Systems. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.
White, A. and Burgin, S. 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-123 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Whittington, R. and Chong, R. 2007. Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 81: 92-116.
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References

Aldhous, P. 2007. Danger, exotic pets on the loose. New Scientist 195: 8-9.
Attenbrow, V. 2002 Sydney's Aboriginal Past. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Banks, P. B. 2004. Population viability analysis in urban wildlife management: modelling management options for Sydney's quarantined bandicoots. Pp. 70-77 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Banks, P. B. and Bryant, J. V. 2007. Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas. Biology Letters 3 (6): 611-613.
Bell, H. 1965. A population study of heathland birds. Emu 295-304.
Benson, D. and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100,000 map sheet. Cunninghamiana 3: 677-799
Black, M., Mooney, S. and Haberle, S. 2007. The fire, human and climate nexus of the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. The Holocene 17: 469-480.
Burbidge, A. and McKenzie, N. 1989. Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australian vertebrate fauna: causes and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 50: 143-98.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S. and Saunders, T. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years. Pp 185-194 in Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance, edited by D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Catterall, C. P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Clayton, M., Wombey, J., Mason, I., Chesser, R. and Wells, A. 2006. CSIRO List of Australian Vertebrates. CSIRO Publ., Collingwood.
DEC (NSW). 2004. The Vertebrate Fauna of Lane Cove National Park. Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Hurstville.
DECC. 2007. Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region, Vols. 1-5. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville.
DIPNR. 2004. Biodiversity of the Georges River Catchment: Terrestrial Biodiversity. Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW), Sydney.
Doupe, R. and Burrows, D. 2008. Thirty years later, should we be more concerned for the ongoing invasion of Mozambique Tilapia in Australia? Pacific Conservation Biology 14: 235-37.
Egan, K.H., Farrell J.R. & D. Pepper-Edwards. 1997. Historical and seasonal changes in the community of forest birds at Longneck Lagoon nature reserve, Scheyville, New South Wales. Corella 21: 1-16.
Ehrlich, P. R. 2007. Urban countryside biogeography: a decade of comparing the avifauna of a Sydney suburb and reserve. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 69-73.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: a case study in western Sydney, pp. 197-204. in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Flannery, T. 1994 The Future Eaters. Reed Books, Melbourne.
Ford, H. A., Barrett, G., Saunders, D. A. and Recher, H. F. 2001. Why have birds in the woodlands of southern Australia declined? Biological Conservation 97: 71-88.
Frith, H. J. 1973 Wildlife Conservation. Angus and Robertson Pty Ltd: Sydney.
Goth, A. Nicol, K, Ross, G. and Shields, J. 2006. Present and past distribution of Australian Brush-turkeys Alectura lathami in New South Wales - implications for management. Pacific Conservation Biology 12: 22-30.
Gordon, J. 2001. The Horse Industry - Contributing to the Australian Economy. Report to the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra. Publ. No. 01/083.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Reptiles of the Sydney Region. Three Sisters Productions, Winmallee.
Hindwood, K. A. and McGill, A. R. 1958 The Birds of Sydney. The Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W., Sydney
Hodgson, P., French, K. and Major, R. 2007. Avian movement across abrupt ecological edges: Differential responses to housing density in an urban matrix. Landscape and Urban Planning 79: 266-272.
Holmes, R. T. and Sherry, T. W. 1988. Assessing population trends of New Hampshire forest birds: Local vs. regional patterns. Auk 105: 756-768.
Hoskin, E., Hindwood, K. and McGill, A. 1991 The Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Hutchings, P. 2004. The conservation of urban marine/estuarine wetlands - conflicts and resolutions. Pp 190-194 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Jarman, P. J. and K. A. Johnson. 1977. Exotic mammals, indigenous mammals, and land use. Proceedings Ecological Society of Australia 10, 145-166.
Johnson, C. 2006 Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jones, R. 1969. ‘Firestick farming’. Australian Natural History 16: 224-228.
Keast, A. 1995a. Habitat loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 30 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist 30: 3-25.
Keast, A. 1995b. Seasonal occurrences and abundances of six common migratory waders in Botany Bay, 1942-1966, a documentation and analysis of Arnold McGill's long-term data set. Australian Zoologist 30: 34-38.
Kinnear, J., Onus, M. and Bromilow, R. 1988. Fox control and rock-wallaby population dynamics. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 435-50.
Kohen, J. L. 1998. Aboriginal environmental impacts in the Hawkesbury River area. Pp. 11-20 in The Improvers' Legacy: Environmental Studies of the Hawkesbury. edited by J. Powell. Deerubbin Press, Berowra Heights.
Leishman, A. J. 2000. A long-term banding study of birds in Spotted Gum forest near Campbelltown, New South Wales. Corella 24: 6-12
Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38: 481-501.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004a. Urban wildlife management: an emerging discipline. Pp 1-7 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Burgin, S. 2004b. Urban wildlife management: forming an Australian synthesis. Pp 230-247 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D., Eby, P., Hutchings, P. and Burgin, S. (eds) 2007 Pest or Guest: the zoology of overabundance. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds) 2002 A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman and Sydney.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
McDonald, J. 1992. Aboriginal usage of the Hawkesbury River in prehistory. Pp. 3-35 in Prehistory, Landscape, Fauna, Vol.II. Historic Environmental Changes Study. Water Board, Sydney-Illawarra-Blue Mountains.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1998. Koala population, Pittwater local government area - endangered population listing: Final determination. NSW Government, Sydney.
NPWS 1997. Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey (UBBS), unpublished report, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville
Parsons, H., French, K and Major, R.E. 2003. The influence of remnant bushland on the composition of suburban bird assemblages in Australia. Landscape and Urban Planning 66: 43-56.
Parsons, H. and Major, R.E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp 211-215 in Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye. edited by D. Lunney, and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Parsons, H., Major, R. and French, K. 2006. Species interactions and habitat associations of birds inhabiting urban areas of Sydney, Australia. Austral Ecology 31: 217-227.
Pyke, G. H. and H. F. Recher. 1986. Relationships between nectar production and seasonal patterns of density and nesting of resident honeyeaters in heathland near Sydney. Australian Journal of Ecology 11: 195-200.
Pyke, G. H. and Recher, H. F. 1988. Seasonal patterns of capture rate and resource abundance for honeyeaters and silvereyes in heathland near Sydney. Emu 88: 33-42
Recher, H.F. 1969. On the relation between bird species diversity and habitat diversity in Australia and North America. American Naturalist 103: 75-79.
Recher, H.F. 1971. Sharing of habitat by three congeneric honeyeaters. Emu 71, 147-152.
Recher, H. F. 1972. The vertebrate fauna of Sydney. Proceedings Ecological Society Australia 7: 79-87.
Recher, H. F. 1999. The state of Australia's avifauna: a personal opinion and prediction for the new millennium. Australian Zoologist 31: 11-27.
Recher, H. F. 2002a. Challenges for nature conservation. Australian Zoologist 32: 112-116.
Recher, H. F. 2002b. Scientists in the wilderness. Australian Zoologist 32: 139-149.
Recher, H. F. 2003a. Where water and land meet. Pp. iii-vi inConserving Marine Environments: Out of Sight, Out of Mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Recher, H. F. 2003b. WildCountry. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 221-222.
Recher, H. F. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zool. Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Recher, H. F. 2007. Conservation challenge of dispersive fauna. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 81-83.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E. and Calver, M. 2002. Resource partitioning and the comparative foraging ecology of five species of ground-pouncing birds in Western Australian eucalypt woodlands. Ornithological Science 1: 29-40.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A., and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment; reconstruction and restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-42.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A., Rosen, S. and Attenbrow, V. 1998. Human settlement of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment; Impact on the biota. Pp. 21-38 in ‘The Improvers’ Legacy: Environmental Studies of the Hawkesbury. edited by J. Powell. Deerubbin Press, Berowra Heights, NSW.
Recher, H. F. and Lim, L. 1990. A review of the status of Australia's terrestrial vertebrate fauna. Proceedings Ecological Society Australia 16: 287-301.
Recher, H. F. and Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long-term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 1-13.
Rosen, S. 1995 Losing Ground: An Environmental History of the Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment. Hale & Iremonger, Sydney.
Scott, L., Hume, I and Dickman, C. 1999. Ecology and populations biology of long-nosed bandicoots ( Perameles nasuta) at North Head, Sydney Harbour National Park. Wildlife Research 26: 805-21.
Shea, G. 2006. The rise and rise of reptiles as companion animals. How can the profession keep up? Conference Poster accessed 30 March 2008 at www.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/partners/conference06/Abstracts/Glen%20Shea.
Short, J. and Smith, A. 1994. Mammal decline and recovery in Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 288-97.
Smith, A. P. and. Quin, D.G. 1996. Patterns and causes of extinction and decline in Australian conilurine rodents. Biological Conservation 77: 243 - 267.
State of the Environment Advisory Council (SEAC) 1996 Australia State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO Publ., Collingwood.
Strahan, R. (ed.). 1995 The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Sydney.
Swan, G. 1990 A Field Guide to the Snakes and Lizards of New South Wales. ThreeSisters. Winmalee, N.S.W.
Terborgh, J. W. 1980. The conservation status of Neotropical migrants: present and future. Pp. 21-30 in Migrant Birds in the Neotropics: Ecology, Behavior, Distribution and Conservation. edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Theodoropoulus, D. I. 2003 An Iconoclast's View of Biological Invasions. Avvar Books, Blythe, California.
Trueman, C., Field, J., Dortch, J., Charles, B. and Wroe, S. 2005. Prolonged coexistence of humans and megafauna in Pleistocene Australia. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 102: 8331-35.
West, R., Brown, A., and Hall, K. 2007 Review of Alien Fish Monitoring Techniques, Indicators and Protocols: Implications for National Monitoring of Australia's Inland River Systems. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.
White, A. and Burgin, S. 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland reserves. Pp. 109-123 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Whittington, R. and Chong, R. 2007. Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: the case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 81: 92-116.
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