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Unique in Australia, three Commons were set aside in the Hawkesbury River catchment for the exclusive use of the colony's free settlers to graze their stock. One of these, Ham Common, was sandwiched between the towns of Windsor and Richmond. In this paper, I provide a thumb-nail sketch of the fragmentation of this Common. The first major section to be excised was for the railway, subsequently land has been excised for a racecourse, Hawkesbury Agricultural College (HAC), the Royal Australian Air Force Richmond (RAAF) Base, and Hawkesbury Showground. Effectively all that remains as the Ham Common is a roadside corridor wedged between the RAAF Base and the railway reserve. The remaining remnant vegetation of the Ham Common is restricted to approximately 575 ha on the grounds of the University of Western Sydney (formally HAC). Even this bushland is fragmented, abutted by roadways, power-line corridors, the University's infrastructure, and open agricultural lands. The data presented in this chapter are opportunistic records of species recorded since the early 1990s. Based on these data, both taxa of protected invertebrates of the area, Cumberland Plain Land Snail Meridolum corneovirens and jewel beetles Buprestidae, are present. Of the vertebrates predicted to be present, 69.2% of reptiles, 80% frogs, and 60.1% mammals, and 94 bird species were recorded. Many of the predicted species not encountered are nocturnal, or otherwise may not be observed without targeted searches, although some species have undoubtedly become locally extinct.

Abel Ecology. 2007 Supplementary Fauna Survey for University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury Campus. Abel Ecology, Faulconbridge.
Abel Ecology. 2008 Fauna and Flora of Conservation Concern on University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury Campus. Abel Ecology, Faulconbridge.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2002. The influence of woodland remnant edges on small skinks (Richmond, New South Wales) Austral Ecology 27: 630-637.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2008. Patterns of bird predation on reptiles in small woodland remnant edges in peri-urban north-western Sydney, Australia Landscape Ecology: 23: 1039-1047
Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S. and Richardson, B. J. 1999. Arboreal arthropod biodiversity in woodlands. II The pattern of recovery of diversity on Melaleuca linariifolia following defaunation. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 655-661.
Barkley, J. 1994. Venrubbin's people and European settlement, Chapter 1, Pp. 1-16. In Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First 200 Years of the Second Colonisation (J. Barkley and M. Nichols, eds). Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
Benson, D. 1992. The Natural Vegetation of the Penrith 1: 100000 Map Sheet. Cumminghamia 2: 503-662.
Briggs, J. D. and Leigh J. H. 1996 Rare or Threatened Australian Plants, Fourth Edition, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of the established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S. 2008. An environmental scientist's view of the role of biodiversity banking offsets in conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 807-816.
Burgin, S. and Suanders, A. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years. Pp. 185-194In Pest of Guest: The Zoology of Overabundance, edited byD. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Catterall, C. P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 In Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Ceballos, G. and Ehrlich, P. R. 2002. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296: 904-907.
Clarke, S. 2005 Systematics, Spatial Analysis and Conservation Genetics ofMeridolum corneovirens (Pfeiffer, 1851) and Related Forms (Gastropoda: Camaenidae) from the Sydney Region of Australia. University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Dalem, A. A. G. R. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-necked Turtles, Chelonia longicollis Shaw, 1794. MSc(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond
Dart, R. N. 1941 Hawkesbury Agricultural College Richmond, New South Wales: History and Reminiscences. The Sydney and Melbourne Publishing Company Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Emerton, S. and Burgin, S. 1997. A recent record of the threatened giant burrowing frog, Heleiporus australiacus in the Cumberland Plain of Western Sydney. Herpetofauna 27: 58.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: A case study in Western Sydney. Pp. 197-204 In Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited byD. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Hochuli, D. F., Gibb, H., Burrows, S. E. and Christie, F. J. 2004. Ecology of Sydney's urban fragments: has fragmentation taken the sting out of insect herbivory. Pp. 63-69 In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney, and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
IUCN SSC 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature: Species Survival Commission. Gland, Switzerland. http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlist2007/index_redlist2007.htm.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. The Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
McManus P. 2005 Vortex Cities to Sustainable Cities: Australia's Urban Challenge. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney
Nichols, M. 1994. The common lands, Chapter 7, Pp. 139-152. In Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First 200 Years of the Second Colonisation. (J. Barkley and M. Nichols) Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
NPWS 1997 Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-215. In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Penman, T., Lemckert, F., Slade, C. and Mahony, M. 2005. Non-breeding habitat requirements of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Zoologist. 33: 251-257.
RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force). 2007 RAAF Base Richmond: Royal Australian Air Force. http://www.defence.gov.au/RAAF/bases/richmond/index.htm, accessed March, 2008.
Richardson, B.J., Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S. and Richardson, S. 1999. Effect of collection procedures and geographic distance on estimates of diversity found on two species of Melaleuca. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 544-554.
Ryan, M. and Burgin, S. 2007. Gone walkabout? Movement of Chelodina longicollis from farm dams in northwest Sydney. Journal of Biological Research 8: 119-127.
Schell, C. 2003 Dynamics of a Limnodynastes tasmaniensis Population in North Western Sydney. PhD, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Strahan, R. 1983 The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Angus and Robertson Publishers, Sydney.
Stubbs, R. undated Sydney's North West Sector: Learning from History. Hawkesbury Historical Society, Windsor. http://www.hakesburyhistory.org.au/stubbs/learning.html, accessed March, 2008.
SMH 2007 Richmond. Sydney Morning Harold, Sydney. http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Richmond/2005/02/17/1108500198898.html, accessed March, 2008.
Tait, C. J., Daniels, C. B. and Hill, R. S. 2005. Changes in species assemblages within the Adelaide Metropolitan Area. Australia 1836 - 2002. Ecological Applications 15: 346-359.
Warner, F. 1995 A Comparison of the Dietary Contents of Two Sympatric Scincid Lizards,Lampropholis delicata de Vis 1888 and Lampropholisguichenoti Dumeri1 and Bibron, 1839 (Lacertilia: Scincidae). B. App. Sc.(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S. 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland remnants. Pp. 109-123 In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Wotherspoon, A. 2008 Movement Patterns and Home Range Requirements of Pogona barbata in Remnants of North Western Sydney, PhD Thesis, University of Western Sydney, South Penrith.
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References

Abel Ecology. 2007 Supplementary Fauna Survey for University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury Campus. Abel Ecology, Faulconbridge.
Abel Ecology. 2008 Fauna and Flora of Conservation Concern on University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury Campus. Abel Ecology, Faulconbridge.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2002. The influence of woodland remnant edges on small skinks (Richmond, New South Wales) Austral Ecology 27: 630-637.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2008. Patterns of bird predation on reptiles in small woodland remnant edges in peri-urban north-western Sydney, Australia Landscape Ecology: 23: 1039-1047
Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S. and Richardson, B. J. 1999. Arboreal arthropod biodiversity in woodlands. II The pattern of recovery of diversity on Melaleuca linariifolia following defaunation. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 655-661.
Barkley, J. 1994. Venrubbin's people and European settlement, Chapter 1, Pp. 1-16. In Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First 200 Years of the Second Colonisation (J. Barkley and M. Nichols, eds). Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
Benson, D. 1992. The Natural Vegetation of the Penrith 1: 100000 Map Sheet. Cumminghamia 2: 503-662.
Briggs, J. D. and Leigh J. H. 1996 Rare or Threatened Australian Plants, Fourth Edition, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Burgin, S. 2006. Confirmation of the established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist 33: 379-384.
Burgin, S. 2008. An environmental scientist's view of the role of biodiversity banking offsets in conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 807-816.
Burgin, S. and Suanders, A. 2007. Parrots of the Sydney region: population changes over 100 years. Pp. 185-194In Pest of Guest: The Zoology of Overabundance, edited byD. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Catterall, C. P. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 In Urban Wildlife: More than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Ceballos, G. and Ehrlich, P. R. 2002. Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296: 904-907.
Clarke, S. 2005 Systematics, Spatial Analysis and Conservation Genetics ofMeridolum corneovirens (Pfeiffer, 1851) and Related Forms (Gastropoda: Camaenidae) from the Sydney Region of Australia. University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Dalem, A. A. G. R. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-necked Turtles, Chelonia longicollis Shaw, 1794. MSc(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond
Dart, R. N. 1941 Hawkesbury Agricultural College Richmond, New South Wales: History and Reminiscences. The Sydney and Melbourne Publishing Company Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Emerton, S. and Burgin, S. 1997. A recent record of the threatened giant burrowing frog, Heleiporus australiacus in the Cumberland Plain of Western Sydney. Herpetofauna 27: 58.
Ferraro, T. and Burgin, S. 1993. Amphibian decline: A case study in Western Sydney. Pp. 197-204 In Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited byD. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Hochuli, D. F., Gibb, H., Burrows, S. E. and Christie, F. J. 2004. Ecology of Sydney's urban fragments: has fragmentation taken the sting out of insect herbivory. Pp. 63-69 In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney, and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
IUCN SSC 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for the Conservation of Nature: Species Survival Commission. Gland, Switzerland. http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlist2007/index_redlist2007.htm.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. The Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
McManus P. 2005 Vortex Cities to Sustainable Cities: Australia's Urban Challenge. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney
Nichols, M. 1994. The common lands, Chapter 7, Pp. 139-152. In Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First 200 Years of the Second Colonisation. (J. Barkley and M. Nichols) Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
NPWS 1997 Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2004. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. Pp. 211-215. In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Penman, T., Lemckert, F., Slade, C. and Mahony, M. 2005. Non-breeding habitat requirements of the giant burrowing frog, Heleioporus australiacus (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Zoologist. 33: 251-257.
RAAF (Royal Australian Air Force). 2007 RAAF Base Richmond: Royal Australian Air Force. http://www.defence.gov.au/RAAF/bases/richmond/index.htm, accessed March, 2008.
Richardson, B.J., Azarbayjani, F.F., Burgin, S. and Richardson, S. 1999. Effect of collection procedures and geographic distance on estimates of diversity found on two species of Melaleuca. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 544-554.
Ryan, M. and Burgin, S. 2007. Gone walkabout? Movement of Chelodina longicollis from farm dams in northwest Sydney. Journal of Biological Research 8: 119-127.
Schell, C. 2003 Dynamics of a Limnodynastes tasmaniensis Population in North Western Sydney. PhD, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Strahan, R. 1983 The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Angus and Robertson Publishers, Sydney.
Stubbs, R. undated Sydney's North West Sector: Learning from History. Hawkesbury Historical Society, Windsor. http://www.hakesburyhistory.org.au/stubbs/learning.html, accessed March, 2008.
SMH 2007 Richmond. Sydney Morning Harold, Sydney. http://www.smh.com.au/news/New-South-Wales/Richmond/2005/02/17/1108500198898.html, accessed March, 2008.
Tait, C. J., Daniels, C. B. and Hill, R. S. 2005. Changes in species assemblages within the Adelaide Metropolitan Area. Australia 1836 - 2002. Ecological Applications 15: 346-359.
Warner, F. 1995 A Comparison of the Dietary Contents of Two Sympatric Scincid Lizards,Lampropholis delicata de Vis 1888 and Lampropholisguichenoti Dumeri1 and Bibron, 1839 (Lacertilia: Scincidae). B. App. Sc.(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
White, A. W. and Burgin, S. 2004. Current status and future prospects of reptiles and frogs in Sydney's urban-impacted bushland remnants. Pp. 109-123 In Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Wotherspoon, A. 2008 Movement Patterns and Home Range Requirements of Pogona barbata in Remnants of North Western Sydney, PhD Thesis, University of Western Sydney, South Penrith.
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