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The Ku-ring-gai local government area is a veritable hot bed of biological diversity as the area is peppered with numerous habitat types that support over 800 plant, at least 170 fungi and over 690 fauna species. The area plays and important part in Australia's cultural and natural history. It supplied much of the timber for early development of old Sydney Town from its tall forests and the first record of one of our most iconic bird species, the Kookaburra, by Governor Phillip's expedition party in April 1788. Ku-ring-gai's significant biodiversity stems from its diverse habitats and geological landscapes ranging from estuarine mangrove mudflats to steep sided sandstone gullies and ridges swathed in heath, open forest and riparian scrub to shale capped ridge tops with tall open forest. The area gets one of the highest levels of rainfall in northern Sydney which helps support open forest dominated by blue gums, blackbutts, turpentines and ironbarks on the richer clay soils. Today council reserves and the tree lined suburbs provide important bio-linkages or corridors between three national parks and smaller reserves within and around the lower north shore. Ku-ring-gai reserves and biodiversity are the legacy of visionary people, geography, planning and chance.

Adam, P. 2004. “Urban bushland - stepping stones, living museums or cemeteries?” Pp 32-37In Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by Daniel Lunney and Shelly Burgin, 2004. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Basham, R. 2005 Microbats in Sydney's urban landscape: are they persisting, and what factors influence their presence? Honours Thesis, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences. University of NSW
Binning, C and Young, M 1999 Beyond Roads, Rates and Rubbish: Opportunities for local government to conserve native vegetation.
National R&D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation, Research Report, 1/99, Environment Australia, Canberra. ISBN 0 642 54004 7
Bremmer, L. and Sherrat. T-A. (2004) The Superb Lyrebird in the Lane Cove National Park Catchment: Ananalysis of its historical decline and potential re-introduction. Report for Ku-ring-gai Council. Macquarie University
Keast, A. 1995 Habitat Loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist, Vol 30(1), pages 3-25.
Ives, C., Taylor, M. P, Davies, P. and Wilks, D. 2005 How wide is wide enough? The relationship between riparian buffer width, condition and biodiversity: an assessment of urban creek systems in the Ku-ring-gai local government are, North Sydney, NSW. in N. Khanna, D. Barton, D. Beale, R. Cornforth, A. Elmahdi, J. McRae, N. Seelsaen, and A. Shalav, editors. Environmental Change: making it happen, 9th Annual Environmental Research Conference, 29th November to 2nd December 2005, Hobart, Tasmania.*
Ives, C., Taylor, M., Davies, P. 2007, Ecological condition and biodiversity value of urban riparian and non-riparian bushland environments: Ku-ring-gai, Sydney In Wilson, A.L., Dehaan, R.L., Watts, R.J., Page, K.J., Bowmer, K.H., & Curtis, A. (2007). Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference. Charles Sturt University, Thurgoona, New South Wales.
Ku-ring-gai Historical Society, 1973. Ku-ring-gai A collection of early photographs in the posseion of the Society.
Ku-ring-gai Historical Society Inc, 1996 Focus on Ku-ring-gai: the story of Ku-ring-gai's growth and development.
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 2004 Comprehensive State of the Environment Report 2004*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, May 2006 Biodiversity Strategy*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, 2006 Bushland Reserve Plan of management*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, 2007 BIOBase # (Biological database of flora, fungi and fauna records).
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 1999 Bushland Fauna Assessment Guidelines.
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 1998 Bushfire management Policy.
Mason, N. and Olsen, S., 2000 Sydney Regional Fox Control Program: Conserving Sydney's Green Web. In Proceedings of the NSW Pest Animal Control Conference. Practical Solutions to Pest Management Problems 25-27 October 2000 Orange NSW. Editor Suzy Balogh. ISBN 0 7347 1246 4.
McDonald, T., Wale, K., Bear, V, 2002 Restoring Blue Gum High Forest: lessons from Sheldon Forest. Ecological Management and Restoration Vol 3 No 1 April 2002.
Natural Heritage Trust with Department of Environment and Conservation Biodiversity in Regional Planning Workshop 2005. Conference Proceedings (Unpublished) Mecure Hotel Sydney 5-7 April 2005.
New South Wales Government 2005. City of Cities: A Plan for Sydney's Future (Sydney Metropolitan Strategy).
O'Reilly, W.C. 1950 Ku-ring-gai Early History and Development ISBN O 9500958.
Recher, H. How Many Insects? in Biodiversity, Recher, H (circa 2001) - web published on WA uni Website.
Smith, P. and Smith, J. 2001 Ku-ring-gai Bushland Fauna Assessment Summer 200-01, Report to Ku-ring-gai Council.
Specht, R. (1981) in Gillison, A.N. and Anderson, D.J. (eds) Vegetation classification in Australia. CSIRO/Australian National University Press, Canberra.
STEP Inc, 2007 Historical Outline of Blue Gum High Forest at St Ives http://www.step.org.au
Taylor, Dr Mark Patrick and Ives, Christopher, 2006 An evaluation of the ecological condition and biodiversity value of urban riparian bushland environments in Ku-ring-gai, Sydney Macquarie University External Collaborative Grant Report. (Prepared for Ku-ring-gai Council, Sept 11, 2006).
Thompson, V.P, and Leishman, M.R. 2005 Survival of native plants of Hawkesbury Sandstone communities with additional nutrients: effect of plant age and habitat. Australian Journal of Botany, 52(2) 141-147. CSIRO Publishing.
Wilks, D., Wright, I. and Baker, E. 2007 Bang for your weed buck; how to know if weed control programs are effective and where should you target your works? Conference Proceedings 14th Biennial.
Wright, I.A, Davies, P, Wilks., Findlay, S., and Taylor, M.P., 2007. In Aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban waterways: comparing ecosystem health in natural reference and urban streams. Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference. Charles Sturt University, Thurgoona, New South Wales.
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References

Adam, P. 2004. “Urban bushland - stepping stones, living museums or cemeteries?” Pp 32-37In Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by Daniel Lunney and Shelly Burgin, 2004. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Basham, R. 2005 Microbats in Sydney's urban landscape: are they persisting, and what factors influence their presence? Honours Thesis, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences. University of NSW
Binning, C and Young, M 1999 Beyond Roads, Rates and Rubbish: Opportunities for local government to conserve native vegetation.
National R&D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation, Research Report, 1/99, Environment Australia, Canberra. ISBN 0 642 54004 7
Bremmer, L. and Sherrat. T-A. (2004) The Superb Lyrebird in the Lane Cove National Park Catchment: Ananalysis of its historical decline and potential re-introduction. Report for Ku-ring-gai Council. Macquarie University
Keast, A. 1995 Habitat Loss and species loss: the birds of Sydney 50 years ago and now. Australian Zoologist, Vol 30(1), pages 3-25.
Ives, C., Taylor, M. P, Davies, P. and Wilks, D. 2005 How wide is wide enough? The relationship between riparian buffer width, condition and biodiversity: an assessment of urban creek systems in the Ku-ring-gai local government are, North Sydney, NSW. in N. Khanna, D. Barton, D. Beale, R. Cornforth, A. Elmahdi, J. McRae, N. Seelsaen, and A. Shalav, editors. Environmental Change: making it happen, 9th Annual Environmental Research Conference, 29th November to 2nd December 2005, Hobart, Tasmania.*
Ives, C., Taylor, M., Davies, P. 2007, Ecological condition and biodiversity value of urban riparian and non-riparian bushland environments: Ku-ring-gai, Sydney In Wilson, A.L., Dehaan, R.L., Watts, R.J., Page, K.J., Bowmer, K.H., & Curtis, A. (2007). Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference. Charles Sturt University, Thurgoona, New South Wales.
Ku-ring-gai Historical Society, 1973. Ku-ring-gai A collection of early photographs in the posseion of the Society.
Ku-ring-gai Historical Society Inc, 1996 Focus on Ku-ring-gai: the story of Ku-ring-gai's growth and development.
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 2004 Comprehensive State of the Environment Report 2004*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, May 2006 Biodiversity Strategy*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, 2006 Bushland Reserve Plan of management*.
Ku-ring-gai Council, 2007 BIOBase # (Biological database of flora, fungi and fauna records).
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 1999 Bushland Fauna Assessment Guidelines.
Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council, 1998 Bushfire management Policy.
Mason, N. and Olsen, S., 2000 Sydney Regional Fox Control Program: Conserving Sydney's Green Web. In Proceedings of the NSW Pest Animal Control Conference. Practical Solutions to Pest Management Problems 25-27 October 2000 Orange NSW. Editor Suzy Balogh. ISBN 0 7347 1246 4.
McDonald, T., Wale, K., Bear, V, 2002 Restoring Blue Gum High Forest: lessons from Sheldon Forest. Ecological Management and Restoration Vol 3 No 1 April 2002.
Natural Heritage Trust with Department of Environment and Conservation Biodiversity in Regional Planning Workshop 2005. Conference Proceedings (Unpublished) Mecure Hotel Sydney 5-7 April 2005.
New South Wales Government 2005. City of Cities: A Plan for Sydney's Future (Sydney Metropolitan Strategy).
O'Reilly, W.C. 1950 Ku-ring-gai Early History and Development ISBN O 9500958.
Recher, H. How Many Insects? in Biodiversity, Recher, H (circa 2001) - web published on WA uni Website.
Smith, P. and Smith, J. 2001 Ku-ring-gai Bushland Fauna Assessment Summer 200-01, Report to Ku-ring-gai Council.
Specht, R. (1981) in Gillison, A.N. and Anderson, D.J. (eds) Vegetation classification in Australia. CSIRO/Australian National University Press, Canberra.
STEP Inc, 2007 Historical Outline of Blue Gum High Forest at St Ives http://www.step.org.au
Taylor, Dr Mark Patrick and Ives, Christopher, 2006 An evaluation of the ecological condition and biodiversity value of urban riparian bushland environments in Ku-ring-gai, Sydney Macquarie University External Collaborative Grant Report. (Prepared for Ku-ring-gai Council, Sept 11, 2006).
Thompson, V.P, and Leishman, M.R. 2005 Survival of native plants of Hawkesbury Sandstone communities with additional nutrients: effect of plant age and habitat. Australian Journal of Botany, 52(2) 141-147. CSIRO Publishing.
Wilks, D., Wright, I. and Baker, E. 2007 Bang for your weed buck; how to know if weed control programs are effective and where should you target your works? Conference Proceedings 14th Biennial.
Wright, I.A, Davies, P, Wilks., Findlay, S., and Taylor, M.P., 2007. In Aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban waterways: comparing ecosystem health in natural reference and urban streams. Proceedings of the 5th Australian Stream Management Conference. Australian rivers: making a difference. Charles Sturt University, Thurgoona, New South Wales.
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