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The objective of this study was to relate the spread of the human population of Sydney to the natural history of the koala population in Campbelltown on its south-western edge. The first ever report of a koala by Europeans was near Bargo, just south of Campbelltown in 1798, making this population of great historical interest. In 1986, a housing development was approved in the Campbelltown suburb of Wedderburn, which threw the local koala population into the public and political spotlight. This peri-urban koala population is under threat from traffic from the Appin Road, potential construction of the Georges River Parkway and increasing urbanisation. Retaining a connection to other koala populations to the south is also important to conserving Campbelltown koalas. State Environmental Planning Policy Number 44 i.e. SEPP 44 (Koala Habitat Protection) requires two independent data sources to map koala habitat in a Local Government Area. Our study examined the value of using multiple independent data sets, generated from different methods, to establish the location of koalas in the Campbelltown area, and beyond, and derive a more reliable distribution map than those currently available. This provided a test of the value of independent data sets to establish the location of a population of a species that has had such an impact on the planning system. Further, this study gave us the ability to utilise modelled koala habitat from the local area, employ information from long-term population studies, particularly home range studies, enlist community data to support koala conservation, and assess the effectiveness of koala habitat conservation efforts in the area. The long-term future of this koala population depends on maintaining the integrity of koala habitat throughout the region, as well as in the Campbelltown LGA. Only a long-term commitment to koalas and their habitat will prevent the natural history of Campbelltown's koalas transforming into an unnatural future over the next 210 years.

ANZECC. 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007. 2006 Australian Census data. www.abs.gov.au (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Thompson, J. and Taylor, A. 2005a Campbelltown City Council. Draft Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management. Part 2: Resource document. Australian Koala Foundation, GPO Box 2659, Brisbane, Queensland, and Campbelltown City Council, Campbelltown, NSW.
Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Thompson, J. and Taylor, A. 2005b Campbelltown City Council. Draft Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management. Part 1: the CKPoM. Australian Koala Foundation, GPO Box 2659, Brisbane, Queensland, and Campbelltown City Council, Campbelltown, NSW.
Chisholm, A. H. 1955. How and when was the lyrebird discovered. Emu 55 (part 1): 1-15.
Cork, S. J., Margules, C.R. and Braithwaite, L. W. 1988 A survey of koalas and their habitat near Wedderburn NSW, suggestions for management and the assessment of the potential effects of a proposed subdivision of four hectare lots. A report to Campbelltown City council. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra, ACT.
Crowther, M.S., McAlpine, C.A., Lunney, D., Shannon, I. & Bryant J.V. 2009. Using broad-scale, community survey data to compare species conservation strategies across regions: a case study of the koala in adjacent catchments. Ecological Management and Restoration 10, S88-S96.
DECC. 2007a Western Sydney Growth Centres: An assessment of the proposal to confer biodiversity certification on State Environmental Planning Policy (Sydney Region Growth Centres) 2006 under section 126G of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW.
DECC. 2007b Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region. Volumes 1-5. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW. https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatspec/faunasouthsydney.htm
DECC. 2008 Koala Recovery Plan. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/threatenedspecies/08450krp.pdf
DEHWA 2009 National Koala Conservation and Management Strategy 2009-2014. DEHWA, Canberra.
Dobson, S. 1990. Can you help is save the koalas at Wedderburn? P 178 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, C.-A. Urquhart and P Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Eco Logical 2007 Growth Centres Conservation Plan. Growth Centres Commission, Sydney, NSW.
Growth Centres Commission 2008 http://www.gcc.nsw.gov.au (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C.A. and Reed, P. (eds). 1990 Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Moon, C. and Matthews, A. 1996. A 1990 survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus population at Iluka in Northern New South Wales. Pp 102-22 in Koalas: research for management, edited by G. Gordon, World Koala Research, Brisbane, Qld.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp 97-106 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, QLD.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A&B. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Ferrier, S. 2000b. Incorporating habitat mapping into practical koala conservation on private lands. Conservation Biology 14: 669-80.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten-year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-96.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Sherwin, W. B. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106: 101-13.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S., O'Neill, L. E., Matthews, A. and Rhodes, J. 2007. The impact of fire and dogs on koalas at Port Stephens, New South Wales, using population viability analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 189-201.
Lunney, D. Close, R., Bryant, J.V., Crowther, M.S., Shannon, I., Madden, K. and Ward, S. 2010. Campbelltown's koalas: their place in the natural history of Sydney. Pp 319-325 in The Natural History of Sydney, edited by D Lunney, P Hutchings and D Hoculi. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Crowther, M.S., Shannon, I., and Bryant, J.V. 2009b. Combining a map-based public survey with an estimation of site occupancy to determine the recent and changing distribution of the koala in New South Wales. Wildlife Research, 36, 262-273.
McAlpine, C. A., Bowen, M. E., Callaghan, J. G., Lunney, D., Rhodes, J. R., Mitchell, D. L., Pullar, D. V. and Possingham, H. 2006. Testing alternative models for the conservation of koalas in fragmented rural-urban landscapes. Austral Ecology 31:529-544.
McAlpine, C., Rhodes, J., Peterson, A., Possingham, H., Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Mitchell, D. and Lunney, D. 2007. Planning guidelines for koala conservation and recovery: A guide to best planning practice Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Koala Foundation and the University of Queensland, Australia. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:1240889 (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
McAlpine, C. A., Rhodes, J. R., Bowen, M. E., Lunney, D. Callaghan, J. G., Mitchell, D. L., and Possingham, H. P. 2008. Can multiscale models of species' distribution be generalized from region to region? A case study of the koala. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 558-567.
NSW Department of Planning. 2007 NSW SLA Population Projections, 2001 to 2031, 2005 Release. NSW Department of Planning, Sydney, NSW.
Phillips, B. 1990 Koalas - The little Australians we'd all hate to lose. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, ACT.
Phillips, S. and Callaghan, J. 2000. Tree species preferences of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Campbelltown area south-west of Sydney, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27: 509-516.
Reed, P., Lunney, D., and Walker, P. 1990. Survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in New South Wales (1986-87), with an ecological interpretation of its distribution. Pp 55-74 In Biology of the koala, edited by A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Rhodes, J. R., Wiegand, T., McAlpine, C. A., Callaghan, J., Lunney, D., Bowen, M. and Possingham, H. 2006. Modeling Species' Distributions to Improve Conservation in Semiurban Landscapes: Koala Case Study. Conservation Biology 20: 449-59.
Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., McAlpine, C. A., de Jong, C., Bowen, M. E., Mitchell, D. L., Lunney, D. and Possingham, H. P. 2008a. Regional variation in habitat-occupancy thresholds: a warning for conservation planning. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:549-557.
Rhodes, J. R., McAlpine, C. A., Peterson, A., Callaghan, J. G., Lunney, D., Possingham, H. P., Mitchell, D. and Curran, T. 2008b. Linking landscape ecology for koala conservation. Australian Planner 45 (2): 24-25.
Sheppard, J. 1990. The Wedderburn koala colony. Pp 70-73 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Sluiter, A. F., Close, R. L. and Ward, S. J. 2002. Koala feeding and roosting trees in the Campbelltown area of New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 23:
Ward, S. J. 2002 Koalas and the community: a study of low density populations in Southern Sydney. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW.
Ward S. J. and Close R. L. 1998. Community assistance with koala Phascolarctos cinereus sightings from a low density population in the south-west Sydney region. Pp. 97-102 in Ecology for Everyone: Communicating Ecology to the Scientists, the Public and the Politicians, edited by. R. T. Wills and R. J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Ward, S. J. and Close, R. L. 2004. Southern Sydney's urban koalas: community research and education at Campbelltown. Pp. 44-54 in: Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
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References

ANZECC. 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007. 2006 Australian Census data. www.abs.gov.au (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Thompson, J. and Taylor, A. 2005a Campbelltown City Council. Draft Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management. Part 2: Resource document. Australian Koala Foundation, GPO Box 2659, Brisbane, Queensland, and Campbelltown City Council, Campbelltown, NSW.
Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Thompson, J. and Taylor, A. 2005b Campbelltown City Council. Draft Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management. Part 1: the CKPoM. Australian Koala Foundation, GPO Box 2659, Brisbane, Queensland, and Campbelltown City Council, Campbelltown, NSW.
Chisholm, A. H. 1955. How and when was the lyrebird discovered. Emu 55 (part 1): 1-15.
Cork, S. J., Margules, C.R. and Braithwaite, L. W. 1988 A survey of koalas and their habitat near Wedderburn NSW, suggestions for management and the assessment of the potential effects of a proposed subdivision of four hectare lots. A report to Campbelltown City council. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra, ACT.
Crowther, M.S., McAlpine, C.A., Lunney, D., Shannon, I. & Bryant J.V. 2009. Using broad-scale, community survey data to compare species conservation strategies across regions: a case study of the koala in adjacent catchments. Ecological Management and Restoration 10, S88-S96.
DECC. 2007a Western Sydney Growth Centres: An assessment of the proposal to confer biodiversity certification on State Environmental Planning Policy (Sydney Region Growth Centres) 2006 under section 126G of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW.
DECC. 2007b Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region. Volumes 1-5. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW. https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatspec/faunasouthsydney.htm
DECC. 2008 Koala Recovery Plan. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, Sydney, NSW. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/threatenedspecies/08450krp.pdf
DEHWA 2009 National Koala Conservation and Management Strategy 2009-2014. DEHWA, Canberra.
Dobson, S. 1990. Can you help is save the koalas at Wedderburn? P 178 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, C.-A. Urquhart and P Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Eco Logical 2007 Growth Centres Conservation Plan. Growth Centres Commission, Sydney, NSW.
Growth Centres Commission 2008 http://www.gcc.nsw.gov.au (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C.A. and Reed, P. (eds). 1990 Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Moon, C. and Matthews, A. 1996. A 1990 survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus population at Iluka in Northern New South Wales. Pp 102-22 in Koalas: research for management, edited by G. Gordon, World Koala Research, Brisbane, Qld.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp 97-106 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, QLD.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A&B. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Ferrier, S. 2000b. Incorporating habitat mapping into practical koala conservation on private lands. Conservation Biology 14: 669-80.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten-year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-96.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Sherwin, W. B. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106: 101-13.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S., O'Neill, L. E., Matthews, A. and Rhodes, J. 2007. The impact of fire and dogs on koalas at Port Stephens, New South Wales, using population viability analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 189-201.
Lunney, D. Close, R., Bryant, J.V., Crowther, M.S., Shannon, I., Madden, K. and Ward, S. 2010. Campbelltown's koalas: their place in the natural history of Sydney. Pp 319-325 in The Natural History of Sydney, edited by D Lunney, P Hutchings and D Hoculi. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Crowther, M.S., Shannon, I., and Bryant, J.V. 2009b. Combining a map-based public survey with an estimation of site occupancy to determine the recent and changing distribution of the koala in New South Wales. Wildlife Research, 36, 262-273.
McAlpine, C. A., Bowen, M. E., Callaghan, J. G., Lunney, D., Rhodes, J. R., Mitchell, D. L., Pullar, D. V. and Possingham, H. 2006. Testing alternative models for the conservation of koalas in fragmented rural-urban landscapes. Austral Ecology 31:529-544.
McAlpine, C., Rhodes, J., Peterson, A., Possingham, H., Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Mitchell, D. and Lunney, D. 2007. Planning guidelines for koala conservation and recovery: A guide to best planning practice Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Koala Foundation and the University of Queensland, Australia. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:1240889 (Last accessed 3 March 2008).
McAlpine, C. A., Rhodes, J. R., Bowen, M. E., Lunney, D. Callaghan, J. G., Mitchell, D. L., and Possingham, H. P. 2008. Can multiscale models of species' distribution be generalized from region to region? A case study of the koala. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 558-567.
NSW Department of Planning. 2007 NSW SLA Population Projections, 2001 to 2031, 2005 Release. NSW Department of Planning, Sydney, NSW.
Phillips, B. 1990 Koalas - The little Australians we'd all hate to lose. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, ACT.
Phillips, S. and Callaghan, J. 2000. Tree species preferences of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Campbelltown area south-west of Sydney, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27: 509-516.
Reed, P., Lunney, D., and Walker, P. 1990. Survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in New South Wales (1986-87), with an ecological interpretation of its distribution. Pp 55-74 In Biology of the koala, edited by A.K. Lee, K.A. Handasyde and G.D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Rhodes, J. R., Wiegand, T., McAlpine, C. A., Callaghan, J., Lunney, D., Bowen, M. and Possingham, H. 2006. Modeling Species' Distributions to Improve Conservation in Semiurban Landscapes: Koala Case Study. Conservation Biology 20: 449-59.
Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., McAlpine, C. A., de Jong, C., Bowen, M. E., Mitchell, D. L., Lunney, D. and Possingham, H. P. 2008a. Regional variation in habitat-occupancy thresholds: a warning for conservation planning. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:549-557.
Rhodes, J. R., McAlpine, C. A., Peterson, A., Callaghan, J. G., Lunney, D., Possingham, H. P., Mitchell, D. and Curran, T. 2008b. Linking landscape ecology for koala conservation. Australian Planner 45 (2): 24-25.
Sheppard, J. 1990. The Wedderburn koala colony. Pp 70-73 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, C. A. Urquhart and P. Reed. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Sluiter, A. F., Close, R. L. and Ward, S. J. 2002. Koala feeding and roosting trees in the Campbelltown area of New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 23:
Ward, S. J. 2002 Koalas and the community: a study of low density populations in Southern Sydney. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW.
Ward S. J. and Close R. L. 1998. Community assistance with koala Phascolarctos cinereus sightings from a low density population in the south-west Sydney region. Pp. 97-102 in Ecology for Everyone: Communicating Ecology to the Scientists, the Public and the Politicians, edited by. R. T. Wills and R. J. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Ward, S. J. and Close, R. L. 2004. Southern Sydney's urban koalas: community research and education at Campbelltown. Pp. 44-54 in: Urban Wildlife: More Than Meets the Eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
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