1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 3168.
Little attention has been given to nature conservation in the Box-lronbark forests of the inland slopes of southeastern Australia. Past and current forestry practices have led to the widespread removal of mature trees and associated tree hollows. Birds and mammals were surveyed at two sites in a Box-lronbark forest at Chiltern in north-east Victoria. One site has abundant mature trees, the other has very few. The site with mature trees had four bird and one mammal species not found at the other site. These were all dependent on tree hollows. All other resident species of birds and mammals were observed at both sites. This indicates that lack of hollows is limiting the distribution of some species. Current management is not improving the situation. The problem is symptomatic of the lack of attention given to management for nature conservation in this forest type.