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Biodiversity conservation science and policy largely ignores the majority of species: the microbes and invertebrates. This biodiversity contains most genetic, metabolic and chemical diversity on Earth and underpins a wide variety of ecosystem services, an unexpected diversity of major industries and, ironically, conventional conservation. Its exclusion, often explained by inadequate scientific technologies, is no longer tenable. On the other hand, its inclusion in biodiversity science and policy will: 1) enhance understanding of the processes and mechanics of ecosystem services, 2) place biodiversity at the core of all economies, 3) realise a vast array of new biological resources, 4) extend responsibility for conservation into industrial sectors that depend on biodiversity, 5) generate a new interest in the workings of the planet through the ‘Attenborough Effect’.

Achtman, M. and Wagner, M. 2008. Microbial diversity and the genetic nature of microbial species. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6: 431-440.
Aizen, M. A., Garibaldi, L. A., Cunningham, S. A. et al. 2008. Long-term global trends in crop yield and production reveal no current pollination shortage but increasing pollination dependency. Current Biology 18: 1572-1575.
Aizenberg, J., Sundar, V. C., Yablon, A. D. et al. 2004. Biological glass fibres. PNAS 101: 3358-3363.
Allen, R. (ed) 2010. Bulletproof Feathers: How Science Uses Nature's Secrets to Design Cutting-Edge Technology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Anon. 2010. Anagyrus lopezi and many other new biological control agents. Biocontrol News and Information 31: 9-16. www.cabi.org/BNI
Avrani, S., Wurtzel, O., Sharon, I. et al. 2011. Genomic island variability facilitates Prochlorococcus-virus coexistence. Nature 474: 604-608.
Barthelat, F. 2010. Nacre from mollusc shells: a model for high-performance structural materials. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry doi:10.1088/1748-3182/5/3035001.
Bascom-Slack, C. A., Arnold, A. E. and Strobel, S. A. 2012. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science 338: 485-486.
Beattie, A. J. 1985. The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant-Plant Mutualisms. Cambridge University Press.
Beattie, A. J. and Ehrlich, P. R. 2004. Wild Solutions: Why Biodiversity is Money in the Bank. Yale University Press, Newhaven, USA; Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Beatty, P. H. and Good, A. G. 2011. Future prospects for cereals that fix nitrogen. Science 333: 416-417.
Berka, R. M., Grigoriev, I. V., Otillar, R. et al. 2011. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris.Nature Biotechnology 29: 922-927
Biello, D. 2010. Putting the sting on mealy marauders: Thailand unleashes South American wasps to save its Cassava crop. Scientific American.
Blanche, R. and Cunningham, S A. 2005. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for Atemoya crops. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 1193-1201.
Blanche, R., Ludwig, J. A. and Cunningham, S. A. 2006. Proximity to rainforest enhances pollination and fruit set in orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 1182-1187.
Boyer, S., Brown, S. D. Collins, R. A. et al. 2012. Sliding window analyses for optimal selections of mini-barcodes, and application to 454-pyrosequencing for specimen identification from degraded DNA. PLoS ONE 7(5) e38215. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038215.
Brim, H., McFarlan, S. C., Fredrickson, J. K. et al. 2000. Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments. Nature Biotechnology 18: 85-90.
Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A. et al. 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486: 59-67.
Carnegie, A. J. and Cooper, K. 2011. Emergency response to the incursion of an exotic myrtaceous rust in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 40:346-359.
Carreiro, M. M., Sinsabaugh, R. L., Repert, D. A. et al. 2000. Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology 81: 2359-2365.
Clabby, C. 2010. Does peak phosphorus loom? American Scientist 98: 291.
Collen, B., Bohra, M. and Baillie, J. E. M. (eds.) 2012. Spineless: Status and Trends of the World's Invertebrates. Zoological Society of London. U.K.
Colwell, R. 1997. Biota 4d: Biota Software Program. Sinauer Associates Inc., New York.
Costello, M. J., May, R. M. and Stork, N. E. 2013. Can we name Earth's species before they go extinct? Science 339: 413-416.
De Deyn, G. B., Raaijmakers, C. E., Zoomer, H. R. et al. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity. Nature 422: 711-713.
Delcomyn, F. 2004. Insect walking and robotics. Annual Review of Entomology 49: 51-70.
Demain, A. L. 2000. Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe. Biotechnology Advances 18: 499-514.
De Vries, F. T. and Bardgett, R. D. 2012. Plant-microbial linkages and ecosystem nitrogen retention. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 10: 425-432.
Demain, A. L. 2000. Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe. Biotechnology Advances 18:499-514.
Dewan, R., Fischer, S., Meyer-Rochow, V. B. et al. 2012. Studying nanstructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better then film solar cells. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry doi:10.1088/1748-3182/7/1/0116003.
Ehrlich, P. R., Kareiva, P. M. and Daily, G. C. 2012. Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization. Nature 486: 68-73.
Evans, T. A., Dawes, T. Z., Ward, P. R. and Lo, N. 2011. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate. Nature Communication 2: 262. Doi:10.1038/ncomms1257.
Fomina, M., Charnock, J. M., Hillier, S. 2008. Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium. Current Biology 18: R375-R377.
Freeman, M. F., Gurgui, C., Maximilian, J. H. et al. 2012. Metagenome mining reveals polytheonamides as post-translationally modified ribosomal peptides. Science 338: 387-390.
Garibaldi, L. A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kremen, C. et al. 2011. Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honeybee visits. Ecology Letters 14: 1062-1072.
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Georgianna, D. R. and Mayfield, S. P. 2012. Exploiting diversity and synthetic biology for the production of algal biofuels. Nature 488: 329-335.
Gewin, V. 2012. The sequencing machine. Nature 487: 156-158.
Grayson, M. 2011. Biofuels: Sowing substitutes for fossil fuels. Nature Outlook 474: S1-S25.
Hawksworth, D. L. 1996. Microorganisms: the neglected rivets in ecosystem maintenance. Pp. 130-138 in Biodiversity, Science and Development, ed by F. di Castri and T. Younes CAB International, UK.
Hayden, E. C. 2012a. Nanopore genome sequencer makes its debut. Nature doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.10051.
Hayden, E. C. 2012b. Next-generation genome sequences compared. Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10497.
Heard, T. A., Vithanage, V. and Chacko, E. K. 1990. Pollination biology of Cashew in the Northern Territory of Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41: 1101-1114.
HMPC-The Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214.
Holbrook, C. T., Clark, R. M., Moore, D. et al. 2010. Social insects inspire human design. Biology Letters: 431-433.
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Jiao, N., Herndl, G. J., Hansell, D. A. et al. 2010. Microbial production of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter: long-term carbon storage in the global ocean. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8: 593-599.
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References

Achtman, M. and Wagner, M. 2008. Microbial diversity and the genetic nature of microbial species. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6: 431-440.
Aizen, M. A., Garibaldi, L. A., Cunningham, S. A. et al. 2008. Long-term global trends in crop yield and production reveal no current pollination shortage but increasing pollination dependency. Current Biology 18: 1572-1575.
Aizenberg, J., Sundar, V. C., Yablon, A. D. et al. 2004. Biological glass fibres. PNAS 101: 3358-3363.
Allen, R. (ed) 2010. Bulletproof Feathers: How Science Uses Nature's Secrets to Design Cutting-Edge Technology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Anon. 2010. Anagyrus lopezi and many other new biological control agents. Biocontrol News and Information 31: 9-16. www.cabi.org/BNI
Avrani, S., Wurtzel, O., Sharon, I. et al. 2011. Genomic island variability facilitates Prochlorococcus-virus coexistence. Nature 474: 604-608.
Barthelat, F. 2010. Nacre from mollusc shells: a model for high-performance structural materials. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry doi:10.1088/1748-3182/5/3035001.
Bascom-Slack, C. A., Arnold, A. E. and Strobel, S. A. 2012. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science 338: 485-486.
Beattie, A. J. 1985. The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant-Plant Mutualisms. Cambridge University Press.
Beattie, A. J. and Ehrlich, P. R. 2004. Wild Solutions: Why Biodiversity is Money in the Bank. Yale University Press, Newhaven, USA; Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
Beatty, P. H. and Good, A. G. 2011. Future prospects for cereals that fix nitrogen. Science 333: 416-417.
Berka, R. M., Grigoriev, I. V., Otillar, R. et al. 2011. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris.Nature Biotechnology 29: 922-927
Biello, D. 2010. Putting the sting on mealy marauders: Thailand unleashes South American wasps to save its Cassava crop. Scientific American.
Blanche, R. and Cunningham, S A. 2005. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for Atemoya crops. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 1193-1201.
Blanche, R., Ludwig, J. A. and Cunningham, S. A. 2006. Proximity to rainforest enhances pollination and fruit set in orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 1182-1187.
Boyer, S., Brown, S. D. Collins, R. A. et al. 2012. Sliding window analyses for optimal selections of mini-barcodes, and application to 454-pyrosequencing for specimen identification from degraded DNA. PLoS ONE 7(5) e38215. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038215.
Brim, H., McFarlan, S. C., Fredrickson, J. K. et al. 2000. Engineering Deinococcus radiodurans for metal remediation in radioactive mixed waste environments. Nature Biotechnology 18: 85-90.
Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A. et al. 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486: 59-67.
Carnegie, A. J. and Cooper, K. 2011. Emergency response to the incursion of an exotic myrtaceous rust in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 40:346-359.
Carreiro, M. M., Sinsabaugh, R. L., Repert, D. A. et al. 2000. Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology 81: 2359-2365.
Clabby, C. 2010. Does peak phosphorus loom? American Scientist 98: 291.
Collen, B., Bohra, M. and Baillie, J. E. M. (eds.) 2012. Spineless: Status and Trends of the World's Invertebrates. Zoological Society of London. U.K.
Colwell, R. 1997. Biota 4d: Biota Software Program. Sinauer Associates Inc., New York.
Costello, M. J., May, R. M. and Stork, N. E. 2013. Can we name Earth's species before they go extinct? Science 339: 413-416.
De Deyn, G. B., Raaijmakers, C. E., Zoomer, H. R. et al. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity. Nature 422: 711-713.
Delcomyn, F. 2004. Insect walking and robotics. Annual Review of Entomology 49: 51-70.
Demain, A. L. 2000. Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe. Biotechnology Advances 18: 499-514.
De Vries, F. T. and Bardgett, R. D. 2012. Plant-microbial linkages and ecosystem nitrogen retention. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 10: 425-432.
Demain, A. L. 2000. Small bugs, big business: the economic power of the microbe. Biotechnology Advances 18:499-514.
Dewan, R., Fischer, S., Meyer-Rochow, V. B. et al. 2012. Studying nanstructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better then film solar cells. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry doi:10.1088/1748-3182/7/1/0116003.
Ehrlich, P. R., Kareiva, P. M. and Daily, G. C. 2012. Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization. Nature 486: 68-73.
Evans, T. A., Dawes, T. Z., Ward, P. R. and Lo, N. 2011. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate. Nature Communication 2: 262. Doi:10.1038/ncomms1257.
Fomina, M., Charnock, J. M., Hillier, S. 2008. Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium. Current Biology 18: R375-R377.
Freeman, M. F., Gurgui, C., Maximilian, J. H. et al. 2012. Metagenome mining reveals polytheonamides as post-translationally modified ribosomal peptides. Science 338: 387-390.
Garibaldi, L. A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kremen, C. et al. 2011. Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honeybee visits. Ecology Letters 14: 1062-1072.
Garibaldi, L. A., Aizen, M. A., Klein, A. M. et al. 2010. Global growth and stability of agricultural yield decrease with pollinator dependence. PNAS pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1012431108.
Georgianna, D. R. and Mayfield, S. P. 2012. Exploiting diversity and synthetic biology for the production of algal biofuels. Nature 488: 329-335.
Gewin, V. 2012. The sequencing machine. Nature 487: 156-158.
Grayson, M. 2011. Biofuels: Sowing substitutes for fossil fuels. Nature Outlook 474: S1-S25.
Hawksworth, D. L. 1996. Microorganisms: the neglected rivets in ecosystem maintenance. Pp. 130-138 in Biodiversity, Science and Development, ed by F. di Castri and T. Younes CAB International, UK.
Hayden, E. C. 2012a. Nanopore genome sequencer makes its debut. Nature doi: 10.1038/nature.2012.10051.
Hayden, E. C. 2012b. Next-generation genome sequences compared. Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10497.
Heard, T. A., Vithanage, V. and Chacko, E. K. 1990. Pollination biology of Cashew in the Northern Territory of Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41: 1101-1114.
HMPC-The Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214.
Holbrook, C. T., Clark, R. M., Moore, D. et al. 2010. Social insects inspire human design. Biology Letters: 431-433.
Isaacs. R., Tuell, J., Fiedler, A. Et al. 2009. Maximizing arthropod-mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: the role of native plants. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 196-203.
Jeschke, J. M., Aparicio, L. G., Haider, S. et al. 2012. Taxonomic bias and lack of cross-taxonomic studies in invasion biology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment doi: 10.1890/12.WB016.
Jiao, N., Herndl, G. J., Hansell, D. A. et al. 2010. Microbial production of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter: long-term carbon storage in the global ocean. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8: 593-599.
Kean, J. M., Vink, C. J., Till, C. 2012. Real-time remote diagnostics for ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 99-104.
Keeling, P. J. et al. 2005. The tree of eukaryotes. TREE 12: 670-676.
Kennedy, C., Lonsdorf, E., Neel, M. et al. 2013. A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on native bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters (in press).
Khan, A. A., Jilani, G., Akhtar, M. S. et al. 2009. Phosphorus solubilising bacteria: occurrence, mechanisms and their role in crop production. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 1: 48-58.
Klein, A. M., Vaissiere, B.E., Cane, J. H. et al. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings Royal Society B 274: 303-313.
Klocke, D., Schmitz, A., Soltner, H. et al. 2011. Infrared receptors in pyrophilous (fire-loving) insects as a model for new un-cooled infrared sensors. Beilstein J. Nanotechnology 2: 186-197.
Lavelle, P., Dangerfield, M., Fragoso, C. et al. 1994. The relationship between soil macrofauna and tropical soil fertility. Pp. 137-169 in: The Biological Management of Tropical Soil Fertility, ed by P. L. Woomer and M. J. Swift, Wiley-Sayce, New York.
Lawton, J. H., Bignell, D. E., Bloemers, G. F. et al. 1996. Carbon flux and diversity of nematodes and termites in Cameroon forest soils. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 261-273.
Liu, X., Ashforth, E., Ren, B. et al. 2010. Bioprospecting microbial natural products libraries from the marine environment for drug discovery. Journal of Antibiotics 63: 415-422.
Lohrer, A. M., Thrush, S. F. and Gibbs, M. M. 2004. Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature 431: 1092-1096.
Losey, J. E. and Vaughan, M. 2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience 56: 311-323.
Lozupone, C. A., Stombough, S. J., Jansson, J. K. et al. 2012. Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature 489: 220-230.
Majer, J. D. 1986. Utilising economically beneficial ants. Pp. 314-331 in Economic Impact and Control of Social Insects, ed by S. Bradleigh-Vinson. Praeger, New York
Mandelik, Y., Winfree, R., Neeson, T. and Kremen, C. 2012. Complementary habitat use by wild bees in agro-natural landscapes. Ecological Applications 22: 1535-1546.
McCarthy, D. P., Donald, P. F., Scharlemann, J. P. W. et al. 2012. Financial costs of meeting global biodiversity conservation targets. Science 338: 946-949.
Mendes, R., Kruijt, M., de Bruijn, I. et al. 2011. Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science 332: 1097-1100.
Mora, C., Tittensor, D. P., Adl, S., Simpson, A. G. B. and Worm, B. 2011. How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biol. 9(8) e1001127. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127.
Nichols, E., Spector, S., Louzada, J. et al. 2008. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Biological Conservation 141: 1461-1474.
Oliver, I. and Beattie, A. J. 1996. Designing a cost-effective invertebrate survey: a test of methods for the rapid assessment of biodiversity. Ecological Applications 6: 594-607.
Oliver, I. et al. 2000. Virtual biodiversity assessment systems. Bioscience 50: 441-450.
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