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The 21st century will be characterised by our successes and failures to solve global issues, and solving our global issues will require a higher quality of science education. However, in science education in Australia it is time to decide to change. In the last decade, enrolments in senior secondary science have declined. With only half of the year 12 cohort completing science, the learning of science in the junior years becomes the only place where future generations of Australians will learn about why science matters. It is in the junior years, however where disenchantment with learning science commences. At all levels of secondary science there is evidence that the majority of students do not understand nor see the relevance of science to their future and the future of Australia. The re-emergence of an “inquiry pedagogy” in the Australian National Curriculum in Science aims to re-engage and challenge students. The issue that concepts in science are difficult to teach and learn remains. A “critical pedagogy”, which includes “inquiry” may be more holistic. Whatever the decision on pedagogy, the issue of assessment in science education, which has traditionally been punitive, must be addressed. Science education at the tertiary level raises similar questions about pedagogies of learning, because academics cover content at an accelerated pace. Moreover, academics are under pressure from increased workloads. This is a result of enrolment of a more diverse student body, decreased resources and fierce competition for research funding. The newest development in science education at the tertiary level is the arrival of Massive On-line Open Courses (MOOCs), which has the potential to alter universities and academics. The troubling reality is that science education will not improve at tertiary level until value is placed on education as much as research. Two tertiary discipline networks; Vision and Innovation in Biology Education (VIBEnet) and Collaborative Universities Biomedical Education (CUBEnet) are initiatives of the Office of Learning and Teaching (OLT) in Australia. These networks provide a place for academics to close the gap between research and teaching to so that the academy can benefit from both research and education. There has never been a greater sense of urgency to resolve these issues so science education can contribute to the science of the future.

Alberts, B. 2013. Prioritizing science education Science. Science. 340: 249
Ainley, J., Kos, J., and Nicholas, M. 2008. Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology in Australian Education. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). http://research.acer.edu.au/acer_monographs/4/ Accessed 27 June 2013. 86 pages.
Anderson, W.A., Banerjee, I.U., Drennan, C.L., Elgin, C.R., Epstein, I.R., Handelsma, J., Hatfull, G.F., Losick, R. O'Dowd, D. K. Olivera, B.M., Strobel, S.A., Walker, G. C. and Warner, L.M. 2011. Changing the culture of science education at research universities. Science 331: 152-153.
Australian Academy of Science, 2013. New Guidelines for Gender Equity in Science. Gender Equity: Current issues, best practice and new ideas. http://www.science.org.au/policy/documents/GenderEquityEMCRForum.pdf Accessed 2 June 2013.
Australian Council of Deans of Science, ACDS, 2003. Is the study of science in decline? ACDS Occasional Paper No. 3. 19 pages.
Barber, J. 2012. Currency of information loses its value. Higher Education The Australian October 31, 2012.
Barnett, R. 2007. A will to learn. Being a student in an age of uncertainty. Open University Press.
Beacon of Enlightenment, 2012. Strategic Plan 2013-1023. University of Adelaide. 17 pages.
Brownell, S.E., Kloser, M.J., Fukami, T. and Shavelson, R. 2012. Undergraduate Biology lab courses: comparing the impact of traditionally based “cookbook” and authentic research-based courses. Journal of College Science Teaching 41(4): 36-45.
Brownell, S.E. and Tanner, K. 2012. Barriers to Faculty Pedagogical Change: Lack of Training, Time, Incentives, and Tensions with professional Identity? CBE-Life Science Education 11: 339-346.
Bjork, R.A. and Linn, M.C. 2006. The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer 19(3): 1-2.
Bruner, J. S. 1961. The Art of Discovery. Harvard Educational Review 31: 21-32.
Chubb, I. 2012. Office of the Chief Scientist. Health of Australian Science. Australian Government Canberra. 212 pages.
Cutler, T. 2008. Venturous Australia: Building strength through innovation. Cutler and Company Pty., Ltd.
Dewey, J. 1897. My pedagogic creed. School Journal 54: 77-80. Accessed 2 June 2013. http://dewey.pragmatism.org/creed.htm
Dewey, J. 1916. Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. MacMillian Press, New York, 434 pages.
DiCarlo, S.E. 2006. Cell biology should be taught as science is practised. Nature 7:290-296.
Driver, R., Leach, J., Millar, R., and Scott, P. 1996. Young People's Images of Science. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Executive Office of the President. 2012. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Report to the president engage to excel: producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. 103 pages.
Ehrlich, P. R. 2013. The decoupling of human and natural systems makes me very grumpy. Pp 9-13 in Grumpy scientists: the ecological conscience of a nation, edited by D. Lunney, P. Hutchings and H. F. Recher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Engineers Australia Innovation Taskforce, 2012. Innovation in Engineering Report. 24 pages
Freire, P. 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed New York, Herder and Herder. 186 pages
Gallagher, S. 2013. MOOC means more time for different types of learning. The Australian. Higher Education supplement. Date 20th March.
Goodrum, D., Hackling, M., and Rennie, L. 2001. Research report: The status and quality of teaching and learning of science in Australian schools. Canberra: Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. Retrieved January 18, 2007 from http://www.detya.gov.au/schools/publications/index.htm
Goodrum, D. 2006. Inquiry in science classrooms: Rhetoric or reality? Proceedings of the ACER Research Conference: Boosting Science Learning-what will it take? (pp. 31-35). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Goodrum, D., Druhan, A. and Abbs, J. 2011. The Status and Quality of Year 11 and 12 Science in Australian Schools. Prepared for the Office of the Chief Scientist Australian Academy of Science. 68 pages.
Handelsman, J. Ebert-May, D, Beichner, R. Bruns, P., Chang, A. DeHaan, R. Gentile, J., Lauffer, S., Stewart, J. Tilghman, S.M. and W.B. 2004. Scientific teaching. Science 304: 521-522.
Harden, N. 2013. Virtualized. The end of the university as we know it. The American Interest 8(3) pages nos
Harris, K.L. 2012. A Background in Science: What sciences means for Australian society. Australian Council of Deans of Science. Centre for the Study of Higher Education University of Melbourne, Melbourne Australia. 75 pages.
Illich, I. 1971. Deschooling society. New York. 68 pages.
Jones, S., Yates, B. and Kelder, J.A. 2011. Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement Science. Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd, Australian Government. 36 pages.
Kapur, M. 2008. Productive Failure. Cognition and Instruction 26(3): 379—424
Kirkup, L., Pizzica, J., Waite, K. and Srinivasan, L. 2010. Realizing a framework for enhancing the laboratory experiences of non-physics majors: from pilot to large-scale implementation European Journal of Physics 31: 1061-1070.
Kellogg, S. 2011. Online education Nature 478: 417-.-418.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J. and Clark R.E. 2006. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and enquiry based learning, Educational Psychologist 41(2): 75-86.
Kuhn, T. S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1st. ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lyons, T., and Quinn, R. 2010 Choosing science: Understanding the declines in senior high school science enrolments. National Centre of Science, ICT and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia (SiMERR Australia), University of New England. http://www.une.edu.au/simerr/pages/projects/131choosingscience.pdf Accessed 27 June 2013. 135 pages.
Martin, J. 2007. The meaning of the 21st Century. Riverhead Penguin, New York, 2007. Transworld, London.
Mayer, R.E. 2004. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? he Case for Guided Methods of Instruction, American Psychologist 59 (1): 14-19.
McWilliam, E., Poronnik, P. and Taylor, P.G. 2008. Re-designing science pedagogy: reversing the flight from science. Journal of Science and Educational Technology 17: 226-235.
Mervis, J. 2013. Transformation is Possible if a University Really Cares. Science 340: 292-296.
National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. National Academies Press, Washington DC.
National Research Council America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science 2006. Singer, S. R., Hilton, M.L & Sweingruber, H. A. (Eds). National Academies Press, Washington DC.
New Media Consortium Horizon Project Summit Communique 2013. The future of Education. The New media Consortium. http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2013-Horizon-Project-Summit-Communique.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2013.
Novak, J.D. 1988. Learning Science and the Science of Learning, Studies in Science Education 15: 77-101.
Obama, B. 2013. President Obama Speech to the National Academy of Science. http://notes.nap.edu/2013/04/30/president-barack-obamas-speech-to-the-national-academy-of-sciences-full-transcript/ Accessed 2 June 2013.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2006. Assessing scientific, reading and mathematical literacy. Paris: OECD.
Poole, G. and McManus, G. 2013. Conversations on Education with Gary Poole and Michael McManus. Journal of NUS Teaching Academy 3(1): 10-17.
Prieto, E., Bourke, S., Holbrook, A., O'Conor, J., Page, A. and Husher, K. 2011. Identification and Development of Strategies for Increasing Engineering Enrolments. Report for the Australian Research Council Linkage grant, University of Newcastle, Engineers Australia and AmpControl Ltd. 150 pages.
Rennie, L. 2006. The community's contribution to science learning: Making it count” http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2006/8
Rodrigues, S., Tytler, R., Darby, L., Hubber, P., Symington, D., and Edwards, J. 2007. The usefulness of a sciences degree: The “lost voices” of science trained professionals. International Journal of Science Education 29 (11): 1411-1433.
Ross, P.M. and Tronson, D.A. 2007. “Intervening to create conceptual change”, Proceedings of the assessment in science teaching and learning symposium: science teaching and learning research including threshold concepts, September 28-29, 2007, Sydney, UniServe Science, Sydney, Australia, pp. 89-94.
Ross, P.M. 2008. “Future directions in representing learning in biology”, Proceedings of the assessment in science teaching and learning symposium: visualisation and concept development, October 2-3, 2008, Sydney, UniServe Science, Sydney, Australia, pp. 104-107.
Ross, P.M. and Gill, B. 2010. Inquiry as an overarching theme in processes and concepts in the learning and teaching of science. Journal of learning Design 3(3): 45-57.
Ross, P.M., Taylor, C., Hughes, C., Lutze-Mann, L. and Tzoumis, V. 2010. Using threshold concepts to generate a new understanding of learning and teaching in Biology. In 3rd International Conference on Threshold Concepts, edited by E. Meyer and R. Land. Sense Publications, Rotterdam.
Sagan, C. 1990. Why We Need to Understand Science, in Skeptical Enquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, USA
Savkar, V and Lokere, J. 2010. Time to Decide: The Ambivalence of the World of Science Toward Education. Nature Education: Cambridge Massachusetts. Pp1-14.
Scardamalia, M., and Bereiter, C. 1991. Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media. Journal of the Learning Sciences 1(1), 37-68.
Schmidt, B. 2012. Brian Schmidt: in conversation. 26th July 2012. The Conversation http://theconversation.com/brian-schmidt-in-conversation-8383 Accessed 2 June 2013.
Solomon, J. 1988. Learning through Experiment. Studies in Science Education 15: 103-108.
Schwab, J.J. 1962. The Teaching of science as Enquiry Harvard University Press. Pp. 1-104.
Sewell, W.H. 1992. A theory of structure: Duality, agency and transformation. American Journal of Sociology 98: 48-69.
Shanahan, M.C. 2009. Identity in science learning: exploring the attention give to agency and structure in studies of identity. Studies in Science Education 45(1): 43-64.
Tuovinen, J. J. and Sweller, J. 1999. A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 91 (2): 334-341.
Tytler, R. 2007. Re-imagining Science Education: Engaging students in science for Australia's future. Australian Educational Review, No. 51. Australian Council for Education Research, ACER press.
Universities Australia. A smarter Australia: Policy advice for an incoming government 2013-2016. 4 pages.
Weiman, C.O. 2007. Why not try a scientific approach to science education? Change Sept/October pp 9-15.
Weiman, C., Perkins, K. and Gilbert, S. 2010. Transforming science education at large research universities: A case study in Progress. Change Mar/April 1-11.
Welch, W. 1971. Review of the Research and Development Program of Harvard Project Physics http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/5228408
West, M. 2012. STEM education and the workplace. Occasional Paper Series 4: 1-4
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References

Alberts, B. 2013. Prioritizing science education Science. Science. 340: 249
Ainley, J., Kos, J., and Nicholas, M. 2008. Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology in Australian Education. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). http://research.acer.edu.au/acer_monographs/4/ Accessed 27 June 2013. 86 pages.
Anderson, W.A., Banerjee, I.U., Drennan, C.L., Elgin, C.R., Epstein, I.R., Handelsma, J., Hatfull, G.F., Losick, R. O'Dowd, D. K. Olivera, B.M., Strobel, S.A., Walker, G. C. and Warner, L.M. 2011. Changing the culture of science education at research universities. Science 331: 152-153.
Australian Academy of Science, 2013. New Guidelines for Gender Equity in Science. Gender Equity: Current issues, best practice and new ideas. http://www.science.org.au/policy/documents/GenderEquityEMCRForum.pdf Accessed 2 June 2013.
Australian Council of Deans of Science, ACDS, 2003. Is the study of science in decline? ACDS Occasional Paper No. 3. 19 pages.
Barber, J. 2012. Currency of information loses its value. Higher Education The Australian October 31, 2012.
Barnett, R. 2007. A will to learn. Being a student in an age of uncertainty. Open University Press.
Beacon of Enlightenment, 2012. Strategic Plan 2013-1023. University of Adelaide. 17 pages.
Brownell, S.E., Kloser, M.J., Fukami, T. and Shavelson, R. 2012. Undergraduate Biology lab courses: comparing the impact of traditionally based “cookbook” and authentic research-based courses. Journal of College Science Teaching 41(4): 36-45.
Brownell, S.E. and Tanner, K. 2012. Barriers to Faculty Pedagogical Change: Lack of Training, Time, Incentives, and Tensions with professional Identity? CBE-Life Science Education 11: 339-346.
Bjork, R.A. and Linn, M.C. 2006. The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer 19(3): 1-2.
Bruner, J. S. 1961. The Art of Discovery. Harvard Educational Review 31: 21-32.
Chubb, I. 2012. Office of the Chief Scientist. Health of Australian Science. Australian Government Canberra. 212 pages.
Cutler, T. 2008. Venturous Australia: Building strength through innovation. Cutler and Company Pty., Ltd.
Dewey, J. 1897. My pedagogic creed. School Journal 54: 77-80. Accessed 2 June 2013. http://dewey.pragmatism.org/creed.htm
Dewey, J. 1916. Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. MacMillian Press, New York, 434 pages.
DiCarlo, S.E. 2006. Cell biology should be taught as science is practised. Nature 7:290-296.
Driver, R., Leach, J., Millar, R., and Scott, P. 1996. Young People's Images of Science. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Executive Office of the President. 2012. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Report to the president engage to excel: producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. 103 pages.
Ehrlich, P. R. 2013. The decoupling of human and natural systems makes me very grumpy. Pp 9-13 in Grumpy scientists: the ecological conscience of a nation, edited by D. Lunney, P. Hutchings and H. F. Recher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Engineers Australia Innovation Taskforce, 2012. Innovation in Engineering Report. 24 pages
Freire, P. 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed New York, Herder and Herder. 186 pages
Gallagher, S. 2013. MOOC means more time for different types of learning. The Australian. Higher Education supplement. Date 20th March.
Goodrum, D., Hackling, M., and Rennie, L. 2001. Research report: The status and quality of teaching and learning of science in Australian schools. Canberra: Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. Retrieved January 18, 2007 from http://www.detya.gov.au/schools/publications/index.htm
Goodrum, D. 2006. Inquiry in science classrooms: Rhetoric or reality? Proceedings of the ACER Research Conference: Boosting Science Learning-what will it take? (pp. 31-35). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Goodrum, D., Druhan, A. and Abbs, J. 2011. The Status and Quality of Year 11 and 12 Science in Australian Schools. Prepared for the Office of the Chief Scientist Australian Academy of Science. 68 pages.
Handelsman, J. Ebert-May, D, Beichner, R. Bruns, P., Chang, A. DeHaan, R. Gentile, J., Lauffer, S., Stewart, J. Tilghman, S.M. and W.B. 2004. Scientific teaching. Science 304: 521-522.
Harden, N. 2013. Virtualized. The end of the university as we know it. The American Interest 8(3) pages nos
Harris, K.L. 2012. A Background in Science: What sciences means for Australian society. Australian Council of Deans of Science. Centre for the Study of Higher Education University of Melbourne, Melbourne Australia. 75 pages.
Illich, I. 1971. Deschooling society. New York. 68 pages.
Jones, S., Yates, B. and Kelder, J.A. 2011. Learning and Teaching Academic Standards Statement Science. Australian Learning and Teaching Council Ltd, Australian Government. 36 pages.
Kapur, M. 2008. Productive Failure. Cognition and Instruction 26(3): 379—424
Kirkup, L., Pizzica, J., Waite, K. and Srinivasan, L. 2010. Realizing a framework for enhancing the laboratory experiences of non-physics majors: from pilot to large-scale implementation European Journal of Physics 31: 1061-1070.
Kellogg, S. 2011. Online education Nature 478: 417-.-418.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J. and Clark R.E. 2006. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and enquiry based learning, Educational Psychologist 41(2): 75-86.
Kuhn, T. S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1st. ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lyons, T., and Quinn, R. 2010 Choosing science: Understanding the declines in senior high school science enrolments. National Centre of Science, ICT and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia (SiMERR Australia), University of New England. http://www.une.edu.au/simerr/pages/projects/131choosingscience.pdf Accessed 27 June 2013. 135 pages.
Martin, J. 2007. The meaning of the 21st Century. Riverhead Penguin, New York, 2007. Transworld, London.
Mayer, R.E. 2004. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? he Case for Guided Methods of Instruction, American Psychologist 59 (1): 14-19.
McWilliam, E., Poronnik, P. and Taylor, P.G. 2008. Re-designing science pedagogy: reversing the flight from science. Journal of Science and Educational Technology 17: 226-235.
Mervis, J. 2013. Transformation is Possible if a University Really Cares. Science 340: 292-296.
National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. National Academies Press, Washington DC.
National Research Council America's Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science 2006. Singer, S. R., Hilton, M.L & Sweingruber, H. A. (Eds). National Academies Press, Washington DC.
New Media Consortium Horizon Project Summit Communique 2013. The future of Education. The New media Consortium. http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2013-Horizon-Project-Summit-Communique.pdf. Accessed 7 April 2013.
Novak, J.D. 1988. Learning Science and the Science of Learning, Studies in Science Education 15: 77-101.
Obama, B. 2013. President Obama Speech to the National Academy of Science. http://notes.nap.edu/2013/04/30/president-barack-obamas-speech-to-the-national-academy-of-sciences-full-transcript/ Accessed 2 June 2013.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2006. Assessing scientific, reading and mathematical literacy. Paris: OECD.
Poole, G. and McManus, G. 2013. Conversations on Education with Gary Poole and Michael McManus. Journal of NUS Teaching Academy 3(1): 10-17.
Prieto, E., Bourke, S., Holbrook, A., O'Conor, J., Page, A. and Husher, K. 2011. Identification and Development of Strategies for Increasing Engineering Enrolments. Report for the Australian Research Council Linkage grant, University of Newcastle, Engineers Australia and AmpControl Ltd. 150 pages.
Rennie, L. 2006. The community's contribution to science learning: Making it count” http://research.acer.edu.au/research_conference_2006/8
Rodrigues, S., Tytler, R., Darby, L., Hubber, P., Symington, D., and Edwards, J. 2007. The usefulness of a sciences degree: The “lost voices” of science trained professionals. International Journal of Science Education 29 (11): 1411-1433.
Ross, P.M. and Tronson, D.A. 2007. “Intervening to create conceptual change”, Proceedings of the assessment in science teaching and learning symposium: science teaching and learning research including threshold concepts, September 28-29, 2007, Sydney, UniServe Science, Sydney, Australia, pp. 89-94.
Ross, P.M. 2008. “Future directions in representing learning in biology”, Proceedings of the assessment in science teaching and learning symposium: visualisation and concept development, October 2-3, 2008, Sydney, UniServe Science, Sydney, Australia, pp. 104-107.
Ross, P.M. and Gill, B. 2010. Inquiry as an overarching theme in processes and concepts in the learning and teaching of science. Journal of learning Design 3(3): 45-57.
Ross, P.M., Taylor, C., Hughes, C., Lutze-Mann, L. and Tzoumis, V. 2010. Using threshold concepts to generate a new understanding of learning and teaching in Biology. In 3rd International Conference on Threshold Concepts, edited by E. Meyer and R. Land. Sense Publications, Rotterdam.
Sagan, C. 1990. Why We Need to Understand Science, in Skeptical Enquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, USA
Savkar, V and Lokere, J. 2010. Time to Decide: The Ambivalence of the World of Science Toward Education. Nature Education: Cambridge Massachusetts. Pp1-14.
Scardamalia, M., and Bereiter, C. 1991. Higher levels of agency for children in knowledge building: A challenge for the design of new knowledge media. Journal of the Learning Sciences 1(1), 37-68.
Schmidt, B. 2012. Brian Schmidt: in conversation. 26th July 2012. The Conversation http://theconversation.com/brian-schmidt-in-conversation-8383 Accessed 2 June 2013.
Solomon, J. 1988. Learning through Experiment. Studies in Science Education 15: 103-108.
Schwab, J.J. 1962. The Teaching of science as Enquiry Harvard University Press. Pp. 1-104.
Sewell, W.H. 1992. A theory of structure: Duality, agency and transformation. American Journal of Sociology 98: 48-69.
Shanahan, M.C. 2009. Identity in science learning: exploring the attention give to agency and structure in studies of identity. Studies in Science Education 45(1): 43-64.
Tuovinen, J. J. and Sweller, J. 1999. A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 91 (2): 334-341.
Tytler, R. 2007. Re-imagining Science Education: Engaging students in science for Australia's future. Australian Educational Review, No. 51. Australian Council for Education Research, ACER press.
Universities Australia. A smarter Australia: Policy advice for an incoming government 2013-2016. 4 pages.
Weiman, C.O. 2007. Why not try a scientific approach to science education? Change Sept/October pp 9-15.
Weiman, C., Perkins, K. and Gilbert, S. 2010. Transforming science education at large research universities: A case study in Progress. Change Mar/April 1-11.
Welch, W. 1971. Review of the Research and Development Program of Harvard Project Physics http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/5228408
West, M. 2012. STEM education and the workplace. Occasional Paper Series 4: 1-4
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