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Projects assessed as having the potential to adversely affect the environment can gain approval with the caveat that monitoring will be undertaken. The implications from such a decision are that adverse findings from monitoring will lead to the project at least, being subject to measures mitigating adverse impacts identified by the monitoring. With regard to the platypus, detection of adverse impacts by a monitoring program can be constrained by both limitations on the sampling techniques currently available (observations and/or capture by netting and/or assessment of important habitat variables) and by the nature of the data these sampling methods can provide. Capture techniques are the preferred method but capture using mesh (‘gill’) nets is limited by stream flows and the presence of fish and/or large woody debris (‘snags’). Fyke netting, the other preferred method, is largely restricted to being used in small water bodies. Low numbers and variability of both captures and observations of the species in the wild are common limitations to the statistical adequacy of a monitoring program for the platypus. These constraints must be raised in the environmental impact assessment process so that decision-makers are aware that, depending on the species, monitoring programs may not necessarily be able to detect adverse impacts or separate human-induced impacts from those affected by natural perturbations. Approval with the precaution of monitoring should be made only if it can be concluded that the proposed monitoring study has the capacity to detect any adverse effects of the project and, in the instance that such adverse effects are detected, that these can be reversed or mitigated.

Booth, R. and Connolly, J. 2008. Platypuses. Pp. 103-132 in Medicine of Australian Mammals. Ch 6, edited by R. Woods and L. Vogelnest. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Bryant, A.G. 1993. An evaluation of the habitat characteristics of pools used by platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the upper Macquarie River system. Bachelor of Applied Science Honours thesis. Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia.
Easton, L., Williams, G. and Serena, M. 2008. Monthly variation in observed activity of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.Victorian Naturalist 125, 104-109.
Faragher, R.A., Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1979. Food of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, with notes on the food of the brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 4: 171-179.
Gardner, J. and Serena, M. 1995. Spatial organisation and movement patterns of adult male platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 91-103.
Grant, T.R. 1982. Food of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Ornithorhynchidae: Monotremata) from various water bodies in New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 5: 135-136.
Grant, T.R. 1983. The behavioral ecology of monotremes. In Eisenberg, J.F. and Kleiman, D.G. (eds). Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior. Special Publication #7, American Society of Mammalogists.
Grant, T.R. 1992. Captures, movements and dispersal of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales, with evaluation of capture and marking techniques. Pp. 255-262 in Platypus and Echidnas, edited by M.L. Augee. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grant, T.R. 1993. The past and present freshwater fishery in New South Wales and the distribution and status of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Australian Zoologist 29: 105-113.
Grant, T.R. 2004a. Captures, capture mortality, age and sex ratios of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, during studies over 30 years in the upper Shoalhaven River in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 217-236.
Grant, T.R. 2004b. Depth and substrate selection by platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the lower Hastings River, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 226-241.
Grant, T.R. 2006. Platypus studies in the Wingecarribee and upper Nepean River systems between 1991 and 2006, including periods of extended operational water transfers during 2003-2006. Report prepared for Sydney Catchment Authority. June 2006.
Grant, T. 2007 Platypus. 4th Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Grant, T.R. 2008. The Hastings District Water Supply Augmentation Scheme: Detection of potential future waterextraction impacts on the aquatic biota of the Lower Hastings River. Monitoring Study: The Platypus. Ten Year Progress Report Winter 1998 to Spring 2007. Progress Report to October 2007 prepared for K. Bishop on behalf of Port Macquarie Hastings Council.
Grant, T.R. and Bishop, K. 1998. Instream flow requirements for the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) - a review. Australian Mammalogy 20: 267-280
Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1974. Capture and marking of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the wild. Australian Zoologist 18: 133-135.
Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1978. Some aspects of the ecology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the upper Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 20: 181-199.
Grant, T.R., Griffiths, M. and Leckie, R.M.C. 1983. Aspects of lactation in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the rivers of eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 881-889.
Grant, T.R. and Griffiths, M. 1992. Aspects of lactation and determination of sex ratios and longevity in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales Pp. 80-89 in Platypus and Echidnas, edited by M.L. Augee. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grant, T.R., Griffiths, M. and Temple-Smith, P.D. 2004. Breeding in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the upper Shoalhaven River in New South Wales - a 27 year study. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 227-234.
Grant, T.R., Lowry, M.B., Pease, B., Walford, T.R. and Graham, K. 2004. Reducing by-catch of platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in commercial and recreational fishing gear in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 259-272.
Grant, T.R. and Temple-Smith, P.D. 1998. Growth of nestling and juvenile platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Australian Mammalogy 20: 221-230.
Grant, T.R. and Whittington, R.J. 1991. The use of freezebranding and implanted transponder tags as a permanent marking method for platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Mammalogy 14: 147-150.
Grigg, G., Beard, L., Grant, T. and Augee, M. 1992. Body temperature and diurnal activity patterns in the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) during winter. Australian Journal of Zoology 40: 135-142.
Hulbert, A.J. and Grant, T.R. 1983. A seasonal study of body condition and water turnover in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 109-116.
McLachlan-Troup, T.A., Dickman, C.R. and Grant, T.R. 2010. Diet and dietary selectivity of the platypus in relation to season, sex and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Journal of Zoology 280 (3), 237-246.
Serena, M. 1994. Use of time and space by the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) along a Victorian stream. Journal of Zoology (London) 232, 117-131.
Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. 1997. Population attributes of platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island. South Australian Naturalist 72, 28-34.
Serena, M., Thomas, J.L., Williams, G.A. and Officer, R.C.E. 1998. Use of stream and river habitats by the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in an urban fringe habitat. Australian Journal of Zoology 46, 267-282
Rohweder, D. 1992. Management of platypus in the Richmond River catchment, northern New South Wales. Bachelor of Applied Science Honours thesis. University of New England, Northern Rivers, Lismore, Australia.
Rohweder, D.A. and Baverstock, P.R. 1999. Distribution of platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Richmond River Catchment, northern New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 30-37.
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References

Booth, R. and Connolly, J. 2008. Platypuses. Pp. 103-132 in Medicine of Australian Mammals. Ch 6, edited by R. Woods and L. Vogelnest. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Bryant, A.G. 1993. An evaluation of the habitat characteristics of pools used by platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the upper Macquarie River system. Bachelor of Applied Science Honours thesis. Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia.
Easton, L., Williams, G. and Serena, M. 2008. Monthly variation in observed activity of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.Victorian Naturalist 125, 104-109.
Faragher, R.A., Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1979. Food of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, with notes on the food of the brown trout, Salmo trutta, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 4: 171-179.
Gardner, J. and Serena, M. 1995. Spatial organisation and movement patterns of adult male platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 91-103.
Grant, T.R. 1982. Food of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Ornithorhynchidae: Monotremata) from various water bodies in New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 5: 135-136.
Grant, T.R. 1983. The behavioral ecology of monotremes. In Eisenberg, J.F. and Kleiman, D.G. (eds). Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior. Special Publication #7, American Society of Mammalogists.
Grant, T.R. 1992. Captures, movements and dispersal of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales, with evaluation of capture and marking techniques. Pp. 255-262 in Platypus and Echidnas, edited by M.L. Augee. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grant, T.R. 1993. The past and present freshwater fishery in New South Wales and the distribution and status of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Australian Zoologist 29: 105-113.
Grant, T.R. 2004a. Captures, capture mortality, age and sex ratios of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, during studies over 30 years in the upper Shoalhaven River in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 217-236.
Grant, T.R. 2004b. Depth and substrate selection by platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the lower Hastings River, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 226-241.
Grant, T.R. 2006. Platypus studies in the Wingecarribee and upper Nepean River systems between 1991 and 2006, including periods of extended operational water transfers during 2003-2006. Report prepared for Sydney Catchment Authority. June 2006.
Grant, T. 2007 Platypus. 4th Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Grant, T.R. 2008. The Hastings District Water Supply Augmentation Scheme: Detection of potential future waterextraction impacts on the aquatic biota of the Lower Hastings River. Monitoring Study: The Platypus. Ten Year Progress Report Winter 1998 to Spring 2007. Progress Report to October 2007 prepared for K. Bishop on behalf of Port Macquarie Hastings Council.
Grant, T.R. and Bishop, K. 1998. Instream flow requirements for the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) - a review. Australian Mammalogy 20: 267-280
Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1974. Capture and marking of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the wild. Australian Zoologist 18: 133-135.
Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. 1978. Some aspects of the ecology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the upper Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 20: 181-199.
Grant, T.R., Griffiths, M. and Leckie, R.M.C. 1983. Aspects of lactation in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the rivers of eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 881-889.
Grant, T.R. and Griffiths, M. 1992. Aspects of lactation and determination of sex ratios and longevity in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales Pp. 80-89 in Platypus and Echidnas, edited by M.L. Augee. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grant, T.R., Griffiths, M. and Temple-Smith, P.D. 2004. Breeding in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the upper Shoalhaven River in New South Wales - a 27 year study. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 227-234.
Grant, T.R., Lowry, M.B., Pease, B., Walford, T.R. and Graham, K. 2004. Reducing by-catch of platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in commercial and recreational fishing gear in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 125, 259-272.
Grant, T.R. and Temple-Smith, P.D. 1998. Growth of nestling and juvenile platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Australian Mammalogy 20: 221-230.
Grant, T.R. and Whittington, R.J. 1991. The use of freezebranding and implanted transponder tags as a permanent marking method for platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Mammalogy 14: 147-150.
Grigg, G., Beard, L., Grant, T. and Augee, M. 1992. Body temperature and diurnal activity patterns in the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) during winter. Australian Journal of Zoology 40: 135-142.
Hulbert, A.J. and Grant, T.R. 1983. A seasonal study of body condition and water turnover in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 109-116.
McLachlan-Troup, T.A., Dickman, C.R. and Grant, T.R. 2010. Diet and dietary selectivity of the platypus in relation to season, sex and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Journal of Zoology 280 (3), 237-246.
Serena, M. 1994. Use of time and space by the platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) along a Victorian stream. Journal of Zoology (London) 232, 117-131.
Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. 1997. Population attributes of platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island. South Australian Naturalist 72, 28-34.
Serena, M., Thomas, J.L., Williams, G.A. and Officer, R.C.E. 1998. Use of stream and river habitats by the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in an urban fringe habitat. Australian Journal of Zoology 46, 267-282
Rohweder, D. 1992. Management of platypus in the Richmond River catchment, northern New South Wales. Bachelor of Applied Science Honours thesis. University of New England, Northern Rivers, Lismore, Australia.
Rohweder, D.A. and Baverstock, P.R. 1999. Distribution of platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Richmond River Catchment, northern New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 30-37.
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