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A recent publication from the Think Tank for Kangaroos (THINKK) in the Institute of Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology Sydney evaluates the idea that eating wild harvested kangaroo meat is environmentally beneficial, compared to other meats produced on rangelands (Ben-Ami et al. 2010). It finds in the negative. The report purports to be a reasoned and objective analysis based on the science surrounding kangaroo harvesting. Here we examine this document with reference to available literature, and demonstrate that it is neither well-reasoned nor accurate. It contains multiple errors of fact, inaccurately represents published research, and makes several invalid and seriously misleading comparisons. In our view, this report makes an inaccurate and potentially misleading contribution to the scientific, legal and social debate on kangaroo management. In the light of these findings we discuss the challenges to academic objectivity and rigour posed by funding of university research by interest groups.

Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2008. Wildlife Protection Association of Australia Inc and Minister for Environment, Heritage and the Arts and Director-General of the Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) [2008] AATA 717 (15 August 2008) Administrative Appeals Tribunal Decision and reason for decision no 535 of 2007. Online at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/aat/2008/717.html
Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2006. Building connections between kangaroos, commerce and conservation in the rangelands. Australian Zoologist 33(3): 398-409.
Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2010 Building Cooperation and Collaboration in the Kangaroo Industry. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 10/13, Kingston ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/10-013 [10 August 2011]
Andrew, A.E. 1988. Kangaroo meat - public health aspects. Australian Zoologist 23(3): 138-140.
Animal Liberation NSW undated. Animal Liberation. Available at http://animal-lib.org.au/ [18 February 2011]
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004. Going Native. Hachette Livre Australia, Sydney.
Australasian Wildlife Management Society 2004. Position Paper on the Commercial Harvesting of Macropods. Available at http://www.awms.org.nz/positionstatements/kangarooharvesting.html [26 February 2008]
Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2003. Economic outlook for sheep and wool. Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Canberra. Available at http://adl.brs.gov.au/data/warehouse/pe_abarebrs99001031/PC12664.pdf [8 February 2011]
Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2006. Sheep Meat Industry Overview. Available at http://www.abare.gov.au/interactive/ausNZ_ag/htm/au_sheep.htm [10 February 2011]
Australian Veterinary Association 2009. Position Statement 13.5 Kangaroo and wallaby population control. Available at http://ava.test.ava.com.au/policy/135-kangaroo-and-wallabypopulation-control [17 February 2011]
Ben-Ami, D., Croft, D., Ramp, D. and Boom, K. 2010 Advocating kangaroo meat: towards ecological benefit or plunder? THINKK, the think tank for kangaroos, University of Technology Sydney. Available at http://thinkkangaroos.uts.edu.au/publications [27 June 2011]
Carter, D. 2011. Bison Marketers Working to Address Challenges of Booming Demand. National Bison Association, Westminster, Colorado. Available at http://www.bisoncentral.com/news/bisonmarketers-working-address-challenges-booming-demand-0 [18 February 2011]
Caughley, G. 1987. Ecological relationships. Pp. 159-187 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chapman, M. 2003. Kangaroos and feral goats as economic resources for graziers: some views from a Southwest Queensland. Rangeland Journal 2003(1): 20-36.
Chapman, S., Morrell, B., Forsyth, R., Kerridge, I. and Stewart, C. 2011 Policies and Practices of Australian Universities on Competing Interests of Academic Staff. Sydney Medical School School of Public Heath, University of Sydney and Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, 22 June 2011. Available at http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/7699/1/Competing%20Interests%20Survey%20Report%20Final%20Version.pdf [3 July 2011]
Cheal, D. 1986. A park with a kangaroo problem. Oryx 20: 95-99.
Cooney, R. 2008 Commercial and Sustainable Use of Wildlife: Suggestions to Improve Conservation, Land Management and Rural Economies. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 08-199, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/08-199 [18 July 2011]
Cooney, R. 2009 Landholder Collaboration in Wildlife Management: Models for Landholders to Share Benefits of Kangaroo Management. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 08-150, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/08-150 [24 February 2011]
Cooney, R., Baumber, A., Ampt, P. and Wilson, G. 2009. Sharing Skippy: how can landholders be involved in kangaroo production in Australia? The Rangeland Journal 31: 283-292.
Croft, D.B., Montague-Drake, R. and Dowle, M. 2007. Biodiversity and water point closure: is the grazing piosphere a persistent effect? Pp. 143-171 in Animals of Arid Australia: Out There on their Own? edited by C. R. Dickman, D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Curtis, K. 2009 Recent changes in the Australian Sheep Industry (The Disappearing Flock). Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. Available at http://www.sheepcrc.org.au/files/pages/industry-tools-and-information/declining-sheep-flock/Item-281-Changes-in-the-Australian-flock—Curtis-report-23Aug09.pdf [18 July 2011]
Dawson, T.J. and Munn, A.J. 2007. How much do kangaroos of differing age and size eat relative to domestic stock? Implications for the arid rangelands. Pp. 96-102 in Animals of Arid Australia: Out Their on their Own? edited by C. Dickman, D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water 2009 NSW Kangaroo Management Program - 2009 Annual Report. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, NSW. Available at http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/KMPAnnualReport2009.pdf [11 February 2011]
Department of Health and Ageing 2010. Recommended serves and serving sizes. Available at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/abhi/publishing.nsf/Content/Portion+and+serving+sizes-lp [18 July 2011]
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 2011. Wildlife Trade and Conservation - Kangaroos. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/wild-harvest/kangaroo/index.html [8 February 2011]
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts 2010. Background information - Commercial kangaroo and wallaby harvest quotas. Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/publications/kangaroo/quotas-background.html [11 February 2011]
Edwards, G.P., Croft, D.B. and Dawson, T.J. 1996. Competition between red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) and sheep ( Ovis aries) in the arid rangelands of Australia. Austral Ecology 21(2): 165-172.
Eglezos, S., Huang, B.X. and Stuttard, E. 2007. A survey of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasees processed for human consumption in two processing plants in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Food Protection 70(5): 1249-1251.
Grigg, G. 1987. Kangaroos - a better economic base for our marginal grazing lands? Australian Zoologist 24(1): 73-80.
Grigg, G. 1989. Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid rangelands. Conservation Biology 3(2): 194-197.
Grigg, G., Hale, P. and Lunney, D. 1995 Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millennium. Pp. 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman, NSW.
Hacker, R., McLeod, S., Druhan, J., Tenhumberg, B. and Pradhan, U. 2004 Kangaroo Management Options In The Murray-Darling Basin. Murray Darling Basin Commission. Canberra, ACT.
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-1248.
Hardman, J. 1996 The Wild Harvest and Marketing of Kangaroos. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, QLD.
Hopkins, D., Wotton, J., Gamble, D. and Atkinson, W. 1995. Lamb carcase characteristics 2: Estimation of the percentage of saleable cuts for carcasees prepared as ‘trim’ and traditional cuts using carcase weight, fat depth, eye muscle area, sex, and conformation score. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35: 161-9.
Hopwood, P. and Martin, P. 1991 Report to the NSW Meat Industry Authority on Zoonosis of Pigs and Lambs and their Implications for Public Health. NSW Meat Industry Authority.
Hopwood, P.R., Hilmi, M. and Butterfield, R.M. 1976. A Comparative Study of the Carcase Composition of Kangaroos and Sheep. Australian Journal of Zoology 24: 1-6.
Hopwood, P.R. and Griffiths, D.A. 1984. Carcase Muscle-Weight Distribution and Yield: A Comparision between Male and Female Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus. Australian Wildlife Research 11(2): 299-302.
Hume, I.D. 1999 Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jonzen, N., Pople, A.R., Grigg, G.C. and Possingham, H.P. 2005. Of sheep and rain: large-scale population dynamics of the red kangaroo. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 22-30.
Kelly, J. 2005 Kangaroo Industry Strategic Plan 2005-2010. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication 05/108, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/05-108 [10 August 2011]
Kempton, T.J., Murray, R.M. and Leng, R.A. 1976. Methane production and digestibility measurements in the grey kangaroo and sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 29: 209-214.
Leader-Williams, N., Milledge, S., Adcock, K., Brooks, M., Conway, A., Knight, M., Mainka, S., Martin, E.B. and Teferi, T. 2005. Trophy hunting of black rhino Diceros bicornis: proposals to ensure its future sustainability. Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy 8(1): 1-11.
Levantis, C., van Mellor, T. and Mues, C. 2007. Australian Beef 07.2. Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (ABARE), Canberra, ACT. Available at http://www.abareconomics.com/publications_html/livestock/livestock_07/beef07_2.pdf [8 February 2011]
Lindenmayer, D. 2007 On Borrowed Time. Penguin Books, Camberwell, VIC.
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation, and Conservation: Lessons from History. Science 260: 17.
Lunney, D. 2010. A history of the debate (1948-2009) on the commercial harvesting of kangaroos, with particular reference to New South Wales and the role of Gordon Grigg. Australian Zoologist 35: 383-430.
McCallum, H. 1995. Would property rights over kangaroos necessarily lead to their conservation? Implications of fisheries models. Pp. 215-223 in Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife edited by G. Grigg, P. Hale and D. Lunney. The Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.
Milliken, T., Emslie, R.H. and Talukdar, B. 2009 African and Asian Rhinoceroses-Status, Conservation and Trade. A report from the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) African and Asian Rhino Specialist Groups and TRAFFIC to the CITES Secretariat pursuant to Resolution Conf. 9.14 (Rev. CoP14) and Decision 14.89. CITES CoP15 Doc. 45.1. Available at http://www.cites.org/common/cop/15/doc/E15-45-01A.pdf [17 February 2011]
Morgan, D.G. and Pegler, P. (Eds) 2010. Managing a kangaroo population by culling to simulate predation: the Wyperfeld trial. Pp 349-360 in Macropods: the biology of kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos edited by G. Coulson and M. Eldredge. CSIRO, Collingwood, Vic.
Munn, A.J., Dawson, T.J., McLeod, S.R., Croft, D.B., Thompson, M.B. and Dickman, C.R. 2009. Field metabolic rate and water turnover of red kangaroos and sheep in an arid rangeland: an empirically derived dry-sheep-equivalent for kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology 57(1): 23-28.
Nicholls, C. 2009. Declining flock numbers sparks serious discussion. Future Farm Industries CRC. Available at http://www.futurefarmonline.com.au/images/publications/Declining%20flock%20number%20sparks%20serious%20discussion.pdf [18 February 2011]
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Olsen, P. and Low, T. 2006 Situation Analysis Report: Update on Current State of Scientific Knowledge on Kangaroos in the Environment, Including Ecological and Economic Impact and Effect of Culling. Prepared for the Kangaroo Management Advisory Panel. Kangaroo Management Advisory Committee, NSW.
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Ouwerkerk, D., Maguire, A.J., McMillen, L. and Klieve, A.V. 2007. Why kangaroos do not produce methane. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 16: 101-104.
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Contents

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References

Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2008. Wildlife Protection Association of Australia Inc and Minister for Environment, Heritage and the Arts and Director-General of the Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW) [2008] AATA 717 (15 August 2008) Administrative Appeals Tribunal Decision and reason for decision no 535 of 2007. Online at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/aat/2008/717.html
Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2006. Building connections between kangaroos, commerce and conservation in the rangelands. Australian Zoologist 33(3): 398-409.
Ampt, P. and Baumber, A. 2010 Building Cooperation and Collaboration in the Kangaroo Industry. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 10/13, Kingston ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/10-013 [10 August 2011]
Andrew, A.E. 1988. Kangaroo meat - public health aspects. Australian Zoologist 23(3): 138-140.
Animal Liberation NSW undated. Animal Liberation. Available at http://animal-lib.org.au/ [18 February 2011]
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp. 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Archer, M. and Beale, B. 2004. Going Native. Hachette Livre Australia, Sydney.
Australasian Wildlife Management Society 2004. Position Paper on the Commercial Harvesting of Macropods. Available at http://www.awms.org.nz/positionstatements/kangarooharvesting.html [26 February 2008]
Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2003. Economic outlook for sheep and wool. Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics, Canberra. Available at http://adl.brs.gov.au/data/warehouse/pe_abarebrs99001031/PC12664.pdf [8 February 2011]
Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2006. Sheep Meat Industry Overview. Available at http://www.abare.gov.au/interactive/ausNZ_ag/htm/au_sheep.htm [10 February 2011]
Australian Veterinary Association 2009. Position Statement 13.5 Kangaroo and wallaby population control. Available at http://ava.test.ava.com.au/policy/135-kangaroo-and-wallabypopulation-control [17 February 2011]
Ben-Ami, D., Croft, D., Ramp, D. and Boom, K. 2010 Advocating kangaroo meat: towards ecological benefit or plunder? THINKK, the think tank for kangaroos, University of Technology Sydney. Available at http://thinkkangaroos.uts.edu.au/publications [27 June 2011]
Carter, D. 2011. Bison Marketers Working to Address Challenges of Booming Demand. National Bison Association, Westminster, Colorado. Available at http://www.bisoncentral.com/news/bisonmarketers-working-address-challenges-booming-demand-0 [18 February 2011]
Caughley, G. 1987. Ecological relationships. Pp. 159-187 in Kangaroos: their Ecology and Management in the Sheep Rangelands of Australia edited by G. Caughley, N. Shepherd and J. Short. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chapman, M. 2003. Kangaroos and feral goats as economic resources for graziers: some views from a Southwest Queensland. Rangeland Journal 2003(1): 20-36.
Chapman, S., Morrell, B., Forsyth, R., Kerridge, I. and Stewart, C. 2011 Policies and Practices of Australian Universities on Competing Interests of Academic Staff. Sydney Medical School School of Public Heath, University of Sydney and Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, 22 June 2011. Available at http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/7699/1/Competing%20Interests%20Survey%20Report%20Final%20Version.pdf [3 July 2011]
Cheal, D. 1986. A park with a kangaroo problem. Oryx 20: 95-99.
Cooney, R. 2008 Commercial and Sustainable Use of Wildlife: Suggestions to Improve Conservation, Land Management and Rural Economies. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 08-199, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/08-199 [18 July 2011]
Cooney, R. 2009 Landholder Collaboration in Wildlife Management: Models for Landholders to Share Benefits of Kangaroo Management. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication No 08-150, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/08-150 [24 February 2011]
Cooney, R., Baumber, A., Ampt, P. and Wilson, G. 2009. Sharing Skippy: how can landholders be involved in kangaroo production in Australia? The Rangeland Journal 31: 283-292.
Croft, D.B., Montague-Drake, R. and Dowle, M. 2007. Biodiversity and water point closure: is the grazing piosphere a persistent effect? Pp. 143-171 in Animals of Arid Australia: Out There on their Own? edited by C. R. Dickman, D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Curtis, K. 2009 Recent changes in the Australian Sheep Industry (The Disappearing Flock). Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. Available at http://www.sheepcrc.org.au/files/pages/industry-tools-and-information/declining-sheep-flock/Item-281-Changes-in-the-Australian-flock—Curtis-report-23Aug09.pdf [18 July 2011]
Dawson, T.J. and Munn, A.J. 2007. How much do kangaroos of differing age and size eat relative to domestic stock? Implications for the arid rangelands. Pp. 96-102 in Animals of Arid Australia: Out Their on their Own? edited by C. Dickman, D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW.
Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water 2009 NSW Kangaroo Management Program - 2009 Annual Report. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water, NSW. Available at http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/KMPAnnualReport2009.pdf [11 February 2011]
Department of Health and Ageing 2010. Recommended serves and serving sizes. Available at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/abhi/publishing.nsf/Content/Portion+and+serving+sizes-lp [18 July 2011]
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 2011. Wildlife Trade and Conservation - Kangaroos. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/wild-harvest/kangaroo/index.html [8 February 2011]
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts 2010. Background information - Commercial kangaroo and wallaby harvest quotas. Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/publications/kangaroo/quotas-background.html [11 February 2011]
Edwards, G.P., Croft, D.B. and Dawson, T.J. 1996. Competition between red kangaroos ( Macropus rufus) and sheep ( Ovis aries) in the arid rangelands of Australia. Austral Ecology 21(2): 165-172.
Eglezos, S., Huang, B.X. and Stuttard, E. 2007. A survey of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasees processed for human consumption in two processing plants in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Food Protection 70(5): 1249-1251.
Grigg, G. 1987. Kangaroos - a better economic base for our marginal grazing lands? Australian Zoologist 24(1): 73-80.
Grigg, G. 1989. Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid rangelands. Conservation Biology 3(2): 194-197.
Grigg, G., Hale, P. and Lunney, D. 1995 Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millennium. Pp. 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution: Using Native Fauna to Assist in its Own Survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales and Australian Museum, Mosman, NSW.
Hacker, R., McLeod, S., Druhan, J., Tenhumberg, B. and Pradhan, U. 2004 Kangaroo Management Options In The Murray-Darling Basin. Murray Darling Basin Commission. Canberra, ACT.
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-1248.
Hardman, J. 1996 The Wild Harvest and Marketing of Kangaroos. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, QLD.
Hopkins, D., Wotton, J., Gamble, D. and Atkinson, W. 1995. Lamb carcase characteristics 2: Estimation of the percentage of saleable cuts for carcasees prepared as ‘trim’ and traditional cuts using carcase weight, fat depth, eye muscle area, sex, and conformation score. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35: 161-9.
Hopwood, P. and Martin, P. 1991 Report to the NSW Meat Industry Authority on Zoonosis of Pigs and Lambs and their Implications for Public Health. NSW Meat Industry Authority.
Hopwood, P.R., Hilmi, M. and Butterfield, R.M. 1976. A Comparative Study of the Carcase Composition of Kangaroos and Sheep. Australian Journal of Zoology 24: 1-6.
Hopwood, P.R. and Griffiths, D.A. 1984. Carcase Muscle-Weight Distribution and Yield: A Comparision between Male and Female Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus. Australian Wildlife Research 11(2): 299-302.
Hume, I.D. 1999 Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jonzen, N., Pople, A.R., Grigg, G.C. and Possingham, H.P. 2005. Of sheep and rain: large-scale population dynamics of the red kangaroo. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 22-30.
Kelly, J. 2005 Kangaroo Industry Strategic Plan 2005-2010. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Publication 05/108, Kingston, ACT. Available at https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/items/05-108 [10 August 2011]
Kempton, T.J., Murray, R.M. and Leng, R.A. 1976. Methane production and digestibility measurements in the grey kangaroo and sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 29: 209-214.
Leader-Williams, N., Milledge, S., Adcock, K., Brooks, M., Conway, A., Knight, M., Mainka, S., Martin, E.B. and Teferi, T. 2005. Trophy hunting of black rhino Diceros bicornis: proposals to ensure its future sustainability. Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy 8(1): 1-11.
Levantis, C., van Mellor, T. and Mues, C. 2007. Australian Beef 07.2. Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (ABARE), Canberra, ACT. Available at http://www.abareconomics.com/publications_html/livestock/livestock_07/beef07_2.pdf [8 February 2011]
Lindenmayer, D. 2007 On Borrowed Time. Penguin Books, Camberwell, VIC.
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation, and Conservation: Lessons from History. Science 260: 17.
Lunney, D. 2010. A history of the debate (1948-2009) on the commercial harvesting of kangaroos, with particular reference to New South Wales and the role of Gordon Grigg. Australian Zoologist 35: 383-430.
McCallum, H. 1995. Would property rights over kangaroos necessarily lead to their conservation? Implications of fisheries models. Pp. 215-223 in Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife edited by G. Grigg, P. Hale and D. Lunney. The Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD.
Milliken, T., Emslie, R.H. and Talukdar, B. 2009 African and Asian Rhinoceroses-Status, Conservation and Trade. A report from the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) African and Asian Rhino Specialist Groups and TRAFFIC to the CITES Secretariat pursuant to Resolution Conf. 9.14 (Rev. CoP14) and Decision 14.89. CITES CoP15 Doc. 45.1. Available at http://www.cites.org/common/cop/15/doc/E15-45-01A.pdf [17 February 2011]
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Munn, A.J., Dawson, T.J., McLeod, S.R., Croft, D.B., Thompson, M.B. and Dickman, C.R. 2009. Field metabolic rate and water turnover of red kangaroos and sheep in an arid rangeland: an empirically derived dry-sheep-equivalent for kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology 57(1): 23-28.
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