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When scientists come under attack, it is predictable that the attackers will use methods to minimise public outrage over the attack, including covering up the action, devaluing the target, reinterpreting what is happening, using official processes to give an appearance of justice, and intimidating people involved. To be effective in countering attacks, it is valuable to challenge each of these methods, namely by exposing actions, validating targets, interpreting actions as unfair, mobilising support and not relying on official channels, and standing up to intimidation. On a wider scale, science is constantly under siege from vested interests, especially governments and corporations wanting to use scientists and their findings to serve their agendas at the expense of the public interest. To challenge this system of institutionalised bias, the same sorts of methods can be used.

Alford, C.F., 2001 Whistleblowers: broken lives and organizational power. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Arditti, R., Brennan, P., Cavrak, S., eds., 1980 Science and liberation. South End Press, Boston.
Badger, G.M., 1986. Statement concerning the complaint by Professor H. G. Andrewartha against Professor C. Manwell. Pp. 113-20 in ‘Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses’ ed. B. Martin, C.M.A. Baker, C. Manwell and C. Pugh. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Baker, C.M.A., 1986. The fruit fly papers. Pp. 87-113 in ‘Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses’ ed. B. Martin, C.M.A. Baker, C. Manwell and C. Pugh. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Baker, C.M.A., Manwell, C., 1988. Agricultural suppression: Lysenkoism versus pesticides. Philosophy and Social Action 14 (1): 65-85.
Birch, L.C., Browning, T.O., 1993. Herbert George Andrewartha, 1907-1992. Historical Records of Australian Science 9 (3): 258-268.
Boffey, P.M., 1975 The brain bank of America: an inquiry into the politics of science. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Delborne, J.A. 2008. Transgenes and transgressions: scientific dissent as heterogeneous practice. Social Studies of Science 38 (4): 509-541.
De Maria, W. 1999 Deadly disclosures. Wakefield Press, Adelaide.
Deyo, R.A., Psaty, B.M., Simon, G., Wagner, E.H., Omann, G.S., 1997. The messenger under attack: intimidation of researchers by special-interest groups. New England Journal of Medicine 366 (16 April): 1176-80.
Dickson, D., 1984 The new politics of science. Pantheon, New York.
Diesendorf, M., 1982. Science under Social and Political Pressures. Pp. 48-73 in ‘Science and ethics’ ed. D. Oldroyd. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Freeman, L.J., 1981 Nuclear witnesses: insiders speak out. Norton, New York.
Hawkeswood, T.J. 2010. Letters addressed to T.J. Hawkeswood from Prof. Clyde Manwell of the Zoology Department, University of Adelaide, South Australia during 1986 and 1987 regarding intellectual suppression in Australian universities, museums etc. as well as events surrounding the famous Wells-Wellington reptile affair of 1985, the horrendous Julian Ford suicide case of 1987 and the Hiller foreword affair of 1987. Calodema 116: 1-20.
Hess, D.J. 2006 Alternative pathways in science and industry: activism, innovation, and the environment in an era of globalization. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kuehn, R.R., 2004. Suppression of environmental science. American Journal of Law & Medicine 30: 333-69.
Manwell, C. 1978. Dissident scientists: hard versus soft science. Physics Bulletin 29: 267-68.
Manwell, C. 1979. Peer review: a case history from the Australian Research Grants Committee. Search 10: 81-86.
Manwell, C., Baker, C.M.A., 1988. Information flow in agriculture: the major interest groups and their interactions. Philosophy and Social Action 14 (1): 51-64.
Martin, B., 1999. Suppression of dissent in science. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 7: 105-35.
Martin, B., 2007 Justice ignited: the dynamics of backfire. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.
Martin, B., Baker, C.M.A., Manwell, C., Pugh, C., eds., 1986 Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Mooney, C. 2005 The Republican war on science. Basic Books, New York.
Primack, J., von Hippel, F., 1974 Advice and dissent: scientists in the political arena. Basic Books, New York.
Rose, H., Rose, S., eds., 1976a The political economy of science: ideology of/in the natural sciences. Macmillan, London.
Rose, H., Rose, S., eds., 1976b The radicalisation of science: ideology of/in the natural sciences. Macmillan, London.
Schoijet, M., Worthington, R., 1993. Globalization of science and repression of scientists in Mexico. Science, Technology, & Human Values 18 (2): 209-30.
Waldbott, G.L., 1965 A struggle with titans. Carlton Press, New York.
Wilkinson, T., 1998 Science under siege: the politicians’ war on nature and truth. Johnson Books, Boulder, CO.
Wilson, S., Barnes, I., 1995. Scientists’ participation in environmental policy. Search 26 (9): 270-3.
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References

Alford, C.F., 2001 Whistleblowers: broken lives and organizational power. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Arditti, R., Brennan, P., Cavrak, S., eds., 1980 Science and liberation. South End Press, Boston.
Badger, G.M., 1986. Statement concerning the complaint by Professor H. G. Andrewartha against Professor C. Manwell. Pp. 113-20 in ‘Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses’ ed. B. Martin, C.M.A. Baker, C. Manwell and C. Pugh. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Baker, C.M.A., 1986. The fruit fly papers. Pp. 87-113 in ‘Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses’ ed. B. Martin, C.M.A. Baker, C. Manwell and C. Pugh. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Baker, C.M.A., Manwell, C., 1988. Agricultural suppression: Lysenkoism versus pesticides. Philosophy and Social Action 14 (1): 65-85.
Birch, L.C., Browning, T.O., 1993. Herbert George Andrewartha, 1907-1992. Historical Records of Australian Science 9 (3): 258-268.
Boffey, P.M., 1975 The brain bank of America: an inquiry into the politics of science. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Delborne, J.A. 2008. Transgenes and transgressions: scientific dissent as heterogeneous practice. Social Studies of Science 38 (4): 509-541.
De Maria, W. 1999 Deadly disclosures. Wakefield Press, Adelaide.
Deyo, R.A., Psaty, B.M., Simon, G., Wagner, E.H., Omann, G.S., 1997. The messenger under attack: intimidation of researchers by special-interest groups. New England Journal of Medicine 366 (16 April): 1176-80.
Dickson, D., 1984 The new politics of science. Pantheon, New York.
Diesendorf, M., 1982. Science under Social and Political Pressures. Pp. 48-73 in ‘Science and ethics’ ed. D. Oldroyd. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Freeman, L.J., 1981 Nuclear witnesses: insiders speak out. Norton, New York.
Hawkeswood, T.J. 2010. Letters addressed to T.J. Hawkeswood from Prof. Clyde Manwell of the Zoology Department, University of Adelaide, South Australia during 1986 and 1987 regarding intellectual suppression in Australian universities, museums etc. as well as events surrounding the famous Wells-Wellington reptile affair of 1985, the horrendous Julian Ford suicide case of 1987 and the Hiller foreword affair of 1987. Calodema 116: 1-20.
Hess, D.J. 2006 Alternative pathways in science and industry: activism, innovation, and the environment in an era of globalization. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kuehn, R.R., 2004. Suppression of environmental science. American Journal of Law & Medicine 30: 333-69.
Manwell, C. 1978. Dissident scientists: hard versus soft science. Physics Bulletin 29: 267-68.
Manwell, C. 1979. Peer review: a case history from the Australian Research Grants Committee. Search 10: 81-86.
Manwell, C., Baker, C.M.A., 1988. Information flow in agriculture: the major interest groups and their interactions. Philosophy and Social Action 14 (1): 51-64.
Martin, B., 1999. Suppression of dissent in science. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 7: 105-35.
Martin, B., 2007 Justice ignited: the dynamics of backfire. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.
Martin, B., Baker, C.M.A., Manwell, C., Pugh, C., eds., 1986 Intellectual suppression: Australian case histories, analysis and responses. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Mooney, C. 2005 The Republican war on science. Basic Books, New York.
Primack, J., von Hippel, F., 1974 Advice and dissent: scientists in the political arena. Basic Books, New York.
Rose, H., Rose, S., eds., 1976a The political economy of science: ideology of/in the natural sciences. Macmillan, London.
Rose, H., Rose, S., eds., 1976b The radicalisation of science: ideology of/in the natural sciences. Macmillan, London.
Schoijet, M., Worthington, R., 1993. Globalization of science and repression of scientists in Mexico. Science, Technology, & Human Values 18 (2): 209-30.
Waldbott, G.L., 1965 A struggle with titans. Carlton Press, New York.
Wilkinson, T., 1998 Science under siege: the politicians’ war on nature and truth. Johnson Books, Boulder, CO.
Wilson, S., Barnes, I., 1995. Scientists’ participation in environmental policy. Search 26 (9): 270-3.
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