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Temperature, rainfall and other climate variables influence the occurrence, range boundaries and behaviour of species, including the timing of natural events, such as migration and breeding. The impacts of climate change have been observed on ecosystems in every ocean and on every continent including Australia. However, the vast majority of past research has been conducted in northern hemisphere temperate ecosystems. Given the substantial climatic and ecosystem differences between these regions and Australia, caution must be applied when translating northern hemisphere results to Australian species. For example, ecological drivers such as fire and precipitation play an important role in shaping distinct southern terrestrial ecosystems. This paper summarizes observed impacts of climate change on Australian species, both terrestrial and marine, identifies key knowledge gaps, and provides suggestions on how these may be addressed.

Beaumont, L.J., McAllan, I.A.W. and Hughes, L. 2006. A matter of timing: changes in the first date of arrival and last date of departure of Australian migratory birds. Global Change Biology 12: 1339-1354.
Bull, C.M. and Burzacott, D. 2002. Changes in climate and in the timing of pairing of the Australian lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. J. Zool. London 256: 383-387.
Chambers, L.E. 2004. Delayed breeding in Little Penguins - evidence of climate change? Aust. Met. Mag. 53: 13-19.
Chambers, L.E. 2005. Migration dates at Eyre Bird Observatory: Links with climate change? Climate Research 29: 157-165.
Chambers, L.E., Hughes, L. and Weston, M.A. 2005. Climate change and its impact on Australia's avifauna. Emu 105: 1-20.
Chambers, L.E. 2006. Associations between climate change and natural systems in Australia. BAMS 87: 201-206.
Chambers, L.E. 2007. Observed climate change impacts on birds. The State of Australia's Birds 2007, supplement to Wingspan 14: 7-9.
Chambers, L.E. 2008. Trends in avian migration timing in south Western Australia and their relationship to climate. Emu 108: 1-14.
Chambers, L.E., Quin, B.R., Menkhorst, P, Franklin, D.C. and Smales, I. 2008a. The effects of climate on breeding in the Helmeted Honeyeater. Emu 108: 15-22.
Chambers, L.E., Gibbs, H., Weston, M.A. and Ehmke, G.C. 2008b. Spatial and temporal variation in breeding of Masked Lapwings ( Vanellus miles) in Australia. Emu 108: 115-124.
Chambers, L.E., Renwick, L. and Dann, P. 2009. Climate, fire and Little Penguins. p. 82 In: Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change (Ed. W. Steffen), CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Chambers, L.E. 2010. Altered timing of avian movements in a peri-urban environment and its relationship to climate. Emu 110: 48-53.
Chambers, L.E. and Keatley, M.R. 2010. Australian bird phenology: a search for climate signals. Austral Ecology 35: 969-979.
Chambers, L.E., Devney, C.A., Congdon, B.C., Dunlop, N., Woehler, E.J. and Dann, P. 2011. Observed and predicted effects of climate on Australian seabirds. Emu 111: 235-251.
Chessman, B.C. 2009. Climatic changes and 13-year trends in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in New South Wales, Australia. Global Change Biology 15: 2791-2802.
Chan, K. 2001. Partial migration in Australian landbirds: a review. Emu 101: 281-292.
Crowder, B. 2000. The Wonders of the Weather. Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne.
Cullen, J.M., Chambers, L.E., Coutin, P.C. and Dann, P. 2009. Predicting onset and success of breeding in little penguins Eudyptula minor from ocean temperatures. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378: 269-278.
Dingle, H. 2008. Bird migration in the southern hemisphere: a review comparing continents. Emu 108: 341-359.
Dunlop, J.N. 2009. The population dynamics of tropical seabirds establishing frontier colonies on islands off South-western Australia. Marine Ornithology 37: 99-105.
Dunlop, M. and Brown, P.R. 2008. Implications of climate change for Australia's National Reserve System: A preliminary assessment. Report to the Department of Climate Change, February 2008. Department of Climate Change, Canberra, Australia.
Gallagher, R.V., Hughes, L. and Leishman, M.R. 2009. Phenological trends among Australian alpine species: using herbarium records to identify climate-change indicators. Australian Journal of Botany 57: 1-9.
Gibbs, H. 2007. Climatic variation and breeding in the Australian Magpie ( Gymnorhina tibicen): a case study using existing data. Emu 107: 284-293.
Green, K. and Pickering, C.M. 2002. A potential scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Snowy Mountains of Australia in relation to climate change, Pp 241-249, in Korner, C. and Sphen, E. (Eds), Global Mountain Biodiversity: Changes and Threats, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Hobday, A.J., Okey, T.A., Polozanska, E.S., Kunz, T.J. and Richardson, A.J. (eds) 2006. Impacts of climate change on Australian marine life. Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia. September 2006.
Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: Is the signal already apparent? Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 56-61.
IPCC 2007. Technical Summary. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 23-78.
Kearney, M.R., Briscoe, N.J., Karoly, D.J., Porter, W.P., Norgate, M. and Sunnucks, P. 2010. Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming. Biology Letters 6: 674-677.
Keatley, M.R., Fletcher, T.D., Hudson, I.L. and Ades, P.K. 2002. Phenological studies in Australia: potential application in historical and future climate analysis. Int. J. Climatol. 22: 1769-1780.
Keatley, M.R., Fletcher, T.D., Hudson, I.L. and Ades, P.K. 2004. Shifts in the date of flowering commencement in some Australian plants, 16th Biometeorology and Aerobiology Conference. Vancouver, Canada, 25-26 August.
Keatley, M.R. and Hudson, I.L. 2007. Shift in flowering dates of Australian plants related to climate: 1983-2006, Pp 504-510 in MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. New Zealand (Eds L Oxley and D Kulasiri).
Kingsford, R.T. and Porter, J.L. 2009. Monitoring waterbird populations with aerial surveys - what have we learnt? Wildlife Research 36: 29-40.
MacGillivray, F., Hudson, I.L. and Low, A.J. 2010. Herbarium collections and photographic images: alternative data sources for phenological research., Hudson, I.L. & Keatley, M.R. (Eds), in Phenological Research (Springer, Dordrecht).
MacNally, R., Horrocks, G., Lada, H., Lake, S., Thomson, J.R. and Taylor, A.C. 2009. Distribution of anuran amphibians in massively altered landscapes in south-eastern Australia: effects of climate change in an aridifying region. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18: 575-585.
Menzel, A. 2003. Plant phenological “fingerprints”, Schwartz, M.D. (Ed.), in Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science, Tasks for Vegetation Science, 39, 319-329 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands)
Norment, C.J. and Green, K. 2004. Breeding ecology of Richard's Pipit ( Anthus novaeseelandiae) in the Snowy Mountains, Emu, 104: 327-336.
Silcocks, A. and Sanderson, C. 2007. Volunteers monitoring change: The Atlas of Australian Birds, Olsen, P. (Ed.), in The State of Australia's Birds 2007: Birds in a Changing Climate, Supplement to Wingspan 14(4): 10-11.
Steffen, W., Burbridge, A.A., Hughes, L., Kitching, R., Lindenmayer, D., Musgrave, W., Stafford Smith, M. and Werner, P.A. 2009. Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change. (CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood).
Surman, C.A., and Nicholson, L. 2009. The good, the bad, and the ugly: ENSO-driven oceanographic variability and its influence on seabird diet and reproductive performance at the Houtman Abrolhos, Eastern Indian Ocean. Marine Ornithology 37: 129-138.
Visser, M.E. and Both, C. 2005. Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick. Proc. R. Soc. B 272: 2561-2569.
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References

Beaumont, L.J., McAllan, I.A.W. and Hughes, L. 2006. A matter of timing: changes in the first date of arrival and last date of departure of Australian migratory birds. Global Change Biology 12: 1339-1354.
Bull, C.M. and Burzacott, D. 2002. Changes in climate and in the timing of pairing of the Australian lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. J. Zool. London 256: 383-387.
Chambers, L.E. 2004. Delayed breeding in Little Penguins - evidence of climate change? Aust. Met. Mag. 53: 13-19.
Chambers, L.E. 2005. Migration dates at Eyre Bird Observatory: Links with climate change? Climate Research 29: 157-165.
Chambers, L.E., Hughes, L. and Weston, M.A. 2005. Climate change and its impact on Australia's avifauna. Emu 105: 1-20.
Chambers, L.E. 2006. Associations between climate change and natural systems in Australia. BAMS 87: 201-206.
Chambers, L.E. 2007. Observed climate change impacts on birds. The State of Australia's Birds 2007, supplement to Wingspan 14: 7-9.
Chambers, L.E. 2008. Trends in avian migration timing in south Western Australia and their relationship to climate. Emu 108: 1-14.
Chambers, L.E., Quin, B.R., Menkhorst, P, Franklin, D.C. and Smales, I. 2008a. The effects of climate on breeding in the Helmeted Honeyeater. Emu 108: 15-22.
Chambers, L.E., Gibbs, H., Weston, M.A. and Ehmke, G.C. 2008b. Spatial and temporal variation in breeding of Masked Lapwings ( Vanellus miles) in Australia. Emu 108: 115-124.
Chambers, L.E., Renwick, L. and Dann, P. 2009. Climate, fire and Little Penguins. p. 82 In: Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change (Ed. W. Steffen), CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Chambers, L.E. 2010. Altered timing of avian movements in a peri-urban environment and its relationship to climate. Emu 110: 48-53.
Chambers, L.E. and Keatley, M.R. 2010. Australian bird phenology: a search for climate signals. Austral Ecology 35: 969-979.
Chambers, L.E., Devney, C.A., Congdon, B.C., Dunlop, N., Woehler, E.J. and Dann, P. 2011. Observed and predicted effects of climate on Australian seabirds. Emu 111: 235-251.
Chessman, B.C. 2009. Climatic changes and 13-year trends in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages in New South Wales, Australia. Global Change Biology 15: 2791-2802.
Chan, K. 2001. Partial migration in Australian landbirds: a review. Emu 101: 281-292.
Crowder, B. 2000. The Wonders of the Weather. Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne.
Cullen, J.M., Chambers, L.E., Coutin, P.C. and Dann, P. 2009. Predicting onset and success of breeding in little penguins Eudyptula minor from ocean temperatures. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378: 269-278.
Dingle, H. 2008. Bird migration in the southern hemisphere: a review comparing continents. Emu 108: 341-359.
Dunlop, J.N. 2009. The population dynamics of tropical seabirds establishing frontier colonies on islands off South-western Australia. Marine Ornithology 37: 99-105.
Dunlop, M. and Brown, P.R. 2008. Implications of climate change for Australia's National Reserve System: A preliminary assessment. Report to the Department of Climate Change, February 2008. Department of Climate Change, Canberra, Australia.
Gallagher, R.V., Hughes, L. and Leishman, M.R. 2009. Phenological trends among Australian alpine species: using herbarium records to identify climate-change indicators. Australian Journal of Botany 57: 1-9.
Gibbs, H. 2007. Climatic variation and breeding in the Australian Magpie ( Gymnorhina tibicen): a case study using existing data. Emu 107: 284-293.
Green, K. and Pickering, C.M. 2002. A potential scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Snowy Mountains of Australia in relation to climate change, Pp 241-249, in Korner, C. and Sphen, E. (Eds), Global Mountain Biodiversity: Changes and Threats, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Hobday, A.J., Okey, T.A., Polozanska, E.S., Kunz, T.J. and Richardson, A.J. (eds) 2006. Impacts of climate change on Australian marine life. Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia. September 2006.
Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: Is the signal already apparent? Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 56-61.
IPCC 2007. Technical Summary. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 23-78.
Kearney, M.R., Briscoe, N.J., Karoly, D.J., Porter, W.P., Norgate, M. and Sunnucks, P. 2010. Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming. Biology Letters 6: 674-677.
Keatley, M.R., Fletcher, T.D., Hudson, I.L. and Ades, P.K. 2002. Phenological studies in Australia: potential application in historical and future climate analysis. Int. J. Climatol. 22: 1769-1780.
Keatley, M.R., Fletcher, T.D., Hudson, I.L. and Ades, P.K. 2004. Shifts in the date of flowering commencement in some Australian plants, 16th Biometeorology and Aerobiology Conference. Vancouver, Canada, 25-26 August.
Keatley, M.R. and Hudson, I.L. 2007. Shift in flowering dates of Australian plants related to climate: 1983-2006, Pp 504-510 in MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. New Zealand (Eds L Oxley and D Kulasiri).
Kingsford, R.T. and Porter, J.L. 2009. Monitoring waterbird populations with aerial surveys - what have we learnt? Wildlife Research 36: 29-40.
MacGillivray, F., Hudson, I.L. and Low, A.J. 2010. Herbarium collections and photographic images: alternative data sources for phenological research., Hudson, I.L. & Keatley, M.R. (Eds), in Phenological Research (Springer, Dordrecht).
MacNally, R., Horrocks, G., Lada, H., Lake, S., Thomson, J.R. and Taylor, A.C. 2009. Distribution of anuran amphibians in massively altered landscapes in south-eastern Australia: effects of climate change in an aridifying region. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18: 575-585.
Menzel, A. 2003. Plant phenological “fingerprints”, Schwartz, M.D. (Ed.), in Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science, Tasks for Vegetation Science, 39, 319-329 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands)
Norment, C.J. and Green, K. 2004. Breeding ecology of Richard's Pipit ( Anthus novaeseelandiae) in the Snowy Mountains, Emu, 104: 327-336.
Silcocks, A. and Sanderson, C. 2007. Volunteers monitoring change: The Atlas of Australian Birds, Olsen, P. (Ed.), in The State of Australia's Birds 2007: Birds in a Changing Climate, Supplement to Wingspan 14(4): 10-11.
Steffen, W., Burbridge, A.A., Hughes, L., Kitching, R., Lindenmayer, D., Musgrave, W., Stafford Smith, M. and Werner, P.A. 2009. Australia's Biodiversity and Climate Change. (CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood).
Surman, C.A., and Nicholson, L. 2009. The good, the bad, and the ugly: ENSO-driven oceanographic variability and its influence on seabird diet and reproductive performance at the Houtman Abrolhos, Eastern Indian Ocean. Marine Ornithology 37: 129-138.
Visser, M.E. and Both, C. 2005. Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick. Proc. R. Soc. B 272: 2561-2569.
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