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As global climates change, the incidence and severity of diseases in natural ecosystems also appears to be increasing. This has been linked to increasingly stressful conditions, which can lead to more susceptible hosts and environmental effects on pathogen abundance and virulence. Recently, environmentally-mediated diseases have affected a diverse range of both terrestrial and marine organisms. The ecological impacts of diseases are likely to be more severe when they affect habitat-forming organisms like trees, corals and seaweeds, as any impacts could cascade throughout entire communities. In marine environments, organisms are exposed to persistently high densities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, which can affect habitat-formers like corals and seagrasses. On temperate rocky reefs, the dominant habitat-formers are seaweeds. Here we review recent work on a chemically defended seaweed, and a bleaching phenomenon common in natural populations near Sydney, Australia. The prevalence of bleaching is positively correlated with water temperature and negatively correlated with concentrations of secondary metabolites in the alga, which are known to inhibit bacteria. Bleaching is associated with a shift in the composition of microbial communities on algal surfaces and can be induced via exposure to ambient seawater microbes and cultures of putative pathogens. Direct consequences of bleaching include reductions in algal growth and fecundity. Bleaching also has indirect ecological effects on the alga, with bleached individuals attracting higher densities of herbivores and preferential consumption of bleached tissues. This environmentally-mediated bleaching phenomenon appears to be the result of complex interactions between increasing ocean temperatures, host defences and pathogen virulence and has significant implications for this habitat-forming organism and the community it supports.

Airoldi L. & Beck M. W. 2007 Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. In: Oceanography and Marine Biology, Vol 45 pp. 345-405. Crc Press-Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.
Alexander H. M. 1992 Evolution of disease resistance in natural plant populations. In: Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution and genetics (eds R. S. Fritz and E. L. Simms) pp. 327-44. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Bally M. & Garrabou J. 2007 Thermodependent bacterial pathogens and mass mortalities in temperate benthic communities: a new case of emerging disease linked to climate change. Global Change Biology 13, 2078-88.
Banin E., Ben-Haim Y., Israely T., Loya Y. & Rosenberg E. 2000 Effects of the environment on the bacterial bleaching of corals. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 123, 337-52.
Bell G. & Gonzalez A. 2009 Evolutionary rescue can prevent extinction following environmental change. Ecology Letters 12, 942-8.
Bellwood D. R., Hoey A. S., Ackerman J. L. & Depczynski M. 2006 Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs. Global Change Biology 12, 1587-94.
Bidart-Bouzat M. G. & Imeh-Nathaniel A. 2008 Global change effects on plant chemical ddefenses against insect herbivores. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50, 1339-54.
Biere A., Marak H. B. & Damme J. M. M. V. 2004 Plant chemical efense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs? Oecologia 140, 430-41.
Booth D. J. & Beretta G., A. 2002 Changes in a fish assemblage after a coral bleaching event. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245, 205-12.
Boots M. 2008 Fight or learn to live with the consequences? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23, 248-50.
Borer E. T., Mitchell C. E., Power A. G. & Seabloom E. W. 2009 Consumers indirectly increase infection risk in grassland food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 503-6.
Burdon J. J. 1987 Diseases and plant population biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Campbell A. H. 2011 The ecology of bacterially-mediated bleaching in a chemically-defended seaweed. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Campbell A. H., Harder T., Nielsen S., Kjelleberg S. & Steinberg P. D. 2011. Climate change and disease: bleaching in a chemically-defended seaweed. Global Change Biology. 17, 2958-2970
Case R. J., Longford S. R., Campbell A. H., Low A., Tujula N. A., Steinberg P. D. & Kjelleberg S. 2011 Temperature induced bacterial virulence and bleaching disease in a chemically defended marine macroalga. Environmental Microbiology 13, 529-537.
Chapin F. S. I., Autumn K. & Pugnaire F. 1993 Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress. The American Naturalist 142, S78.
Cole R. G. & Babcock R. C. 1996 Mass mortality of a dominant kelp (Laminariales) at Goat Island, North-eastern New Zealand. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 907-11.
Coleman M. A., Kelaher B. P., Steinberg P. D. & Millar A., J. K. 2008 Absence of a large brown macroalga on urbanised reefs around Sydney, Australia and evidence for historical decline. Journal of Phycology 44, 897-901.
Connell S. D., Russell B. D., Turner D. J., Shepherd S. A., Kildea T., Miller D., Airoldi L. & Cheshire A. 2008 Recovering a lost baseline: missing kelp forests from a metropolitan coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360, 63-72.
De Nys R., Wright A. D., Konig G. M. & Sticher O. 1993 New halogenated furanones from the marine alga Delisea pulchra (cf. fimbriata). Tetrahedron 49, 11213-20.
Dring M. J. 2006 Stress resistance and disease resistance in seaweeds: The role of reactive oxygen metabolism. In: Advances in Botanical Research, Vol 43 pp. 175-207. Academic Press Ltd, London.
Dworjanyn S. A., Wright J. T., Paul N. A., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. 2006 Cost of chemical defence in the red alga Delisea pulchra. Oikos 113, 13-22.
Edwards M. S. & Estes J. A. 2006 Catastrophe, recovery and range limitation in NE Pacific kelp forests: a large-scale perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320, 79-87.
Engel S., Jensen P. R. & Fenical W. 2002 Chemical ecology of marine microbial defense. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 1971-85.
Eranen J. K., Nilsen J., Zverev V. E. & Kozlov M. V. 2009 Mountain birch under multiple stressors; heavy metal-resistant populations co-resistant to biotic stress but maladapted to abiotic stress. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 840-51.
Ewald P. W. 1994 Evolution of Infectious Diseases. Oxford University Press, New York.
Feely R. A., Sabine C. L., Lee K., Berelson W., Kleypas J., Fabry V. J. & Millero F. J. 2004 Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans. Science 305, 362-6.
Frias-Lopez J., Zerkle A. L., Bonheyo G. T. & Fouke B. W. 2002 Partitioning of bacterial communities between seawater and healthy, black band diseased, and dead coral surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 2214-28.
Garcia-Vallve S., Romeu A. & Palau J. 2000 Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and archeal complete genomes. Genome Research 10, 1719-25.
Gemmill A. W. & Read A. F. 1998 Counting the cost of disease resistance. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13, 8-9.
Graham M. H. 2002 Prolonged reproductive consequences of short-term biomass loss in seaweeds. Marine Biology 140, 901-11.
Harvell C. D., Kim K., Burkholder J. M., Colwell R. R., Epstein P. R., Grimes D. J., E. H. E., Lipp E. K., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Overstreet R. M., Porter J. W., Smith G. W. & Vasta G. R. 1999 Emerging marine diseases - climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285, 1505-10.
Harvell C. D., Mitchell C. E., Ward J. R., Altizer S., Dobson A. P., Ostfeld R. S. & Samuel M. D. 2002 Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296, 2158-62.
Hay M. E. 1991 Marine-terrestrial contrasts in the ecology of plant chemical efenses against herbivores. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6, 362-5.
Huntley B. 1991 How plants respond to climate change: migration rates, individualism and the consequences for plant communities. Annals of Botany 67 (S1), 15-22.
Jackson J. B. C. 2001 What was natural in the coastal oceans? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 5411-8.
Jackson J. B. C., Kirby M. X., Berger W. H., Bjorndal K. A., Botsford L. W., Bourque B. J., Bradbury R. H., Cooke R., Erlandson J., Estes J. A., Hughes T. P., Kidwell S., Lange C. B., Lenihan H. S., Pandolfi J. M., Peterson C. H., Steneck R. S., Tegner M. J. & Warner R. R. 2001 Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293, 629-37.
Kennedy S., Kuiken T., Jepson P. D., Deaville R., Forsyth M., Barrett T., van de Bildt M. W. G., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Eybatov T., Duck C., Kydyrmanov A., Mitrofanov I. & Wilson S. 2000 Mass die-off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6, 637-9.
Klinkert B. & Narberhaus F. 2009 Microbial thermosensors. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 66, 2661-76.
Konkel M. E. & Tilly K. 2000 Temperature-regulated expression of bacterial virulence genes. Microbes and Infection 2, 157-66.
Kover P. X. & Schaal B. A. 2002 Genetic variation for disease resistance and tolerance among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 11270-4.
Lafferty K. D. 2009 The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases. Ecology 90, 888-900.
Lafferty K. D. & Holt R. D. 2003 How should environmental stress affect the population dynamics of disease? Ecology Letters 6, 654-64.
Lamb C. & Dixon R. A. 1997 The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48, 251-75.
Manefield M., Welch M., Givskov M., Salmond G. P. C. & Kjelleberg S. 2001 Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora. FEMS Microbiology Letters 205, 131-8.
Martin Y., Bonnefont J. L. & Chancerelle L. 2002 Gorgonians mass mortality during the 1999 late summer in French Mediterranean coastal waters: the bacterial hypothesis. Water Research 36, 779-82.
Medel R. 2001 Assessment of correlational selection on tolerance and resistance traits in a host plant-parasitic plant interaction. Evolutionary Ecology 15, 37-52.
Myers J. H. & Kuken B. 1995 Changes in the fecundity of tent caterpillars: a correlated character of disease resistance or sublethal effect of disease? Oecologia 103, 475-80.
Pantos O., Cooney R. P., Le Tissier M. D. A., Barer M. R., O'Donnell A. G. & Bythell J. C. 2003 The bacterial ecology of a plague-like disease affecting the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis. Environmental Microbiology 5, 370-82.
Pounds A. J., Bustamante M. R., Coloma L. A., Consuegra J. A., Fogden M. P. L., Foster P. N., La Marca E., Masters K. L., Merino-Viteri A., Puschendorf R., Ron S. R., Sanchez-Azofeifa G. A., Still C. J. & Young B. E. 2006 Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439, 161-7.
Przeslawski R., Ahyong S., Byrne M., Worheides G. & Hutchings P. 2008 Beyond corals and fish: the effects of climate change on noncoral benthic invertebrates of tropical reefs. Global Change Biology 14, 2773-95.
Raffel T. R., Rohr J. R., Kiesecker J. M. & Hudson P. J. 2006 Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditions. Functional Ecology 20, 819-28.
Reinheimer G. 1992 Aquatic Microbiology. Wiley, New York.
Ridgeway K. R. 2007 Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L13613.
Rogers C. N., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. 2003 Ecology of the sea hare Aplysia parvula (Opisthobranchia) in New South Wales, Australia. Molluscan Research 23, 185-98.
Rosenberg E. & Ben-Haim Y. 2002 Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environmental Microbiology 4, 318-26.
Rosenberg E., Koren O., Reshef L., Efrony R. & Zilber-Rosenberg I. 2007 The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution. Nat Rev Micro 5, 355-62.
Ross C., Kupper F. C. & Jacobs R. S. 2006 Involvement of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the wound response of Dasycladus vermicularis. Chemistry & Biology 13, 353-64.
Ruuhola T. & Yang S. 2006 Wound-induced oxidative responses in mountain birch leaves. Annals of Botany 97, 29-37.
Sait S. M., Begon M. & Thompson D. J. 1994 The effects of a sublethal baculovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Journal of Animal Ecology 63, 541-50.
Santos R. & Duarte P. 1996 Fecundity, spore recruitment and size in Gelidium sesquipedale (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 326-327, 223-8.
Schnitzler I., Pohnert G., Hay M. E. & Boland W. 2001 Chemical defense of brown algae ( Dictyopteris spp.) against the herbivorous amphipod Ampithoe longimana. Oecologia 126, 515-21.
Scrosati R. & DeWreede R. E. 1998 The impact of frond crowding on frond bleaching in the clonal intertidal alga Mazella cornucopiae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinaceae) from British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Phycology 34, 228-32.
Sotka E. E., Taylor R. B. & Hay M. E. 2002 Tissue-specific induction of resistance to herbivores in a brown seaweed: the importance of direct grazing versus waterborne signals from grazed neighbors. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 277, 1-12.
Steinberg P. D., De Nys R. & Kjelleberg S. 2002 Chemical cues for surface colonization. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 1935-51.
Steinberg P. D., Schneider R. & Kjelleberg S. 1997 Chemical defenses of seaweeds against microbial colonization. Biodegradation 8, 211-20.
Steneck R. S., Graham M. H., Bourque B. J., Corbett D., Erlandson J. M., Estes J. A. & Tegner M. J. 2002 Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29, 436-59.
Stephens C. & Murray W. 2001 Pathogen evolution: How good bacteria go bad. Current Biology 11, R53-R6.
Sussman M., Loya Y., Fine M. & Rosenberg E. 2003 The marine fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a winter reservoir and spring-summer vector for the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Environmental Microbiology 5, 250-5.
Thibaut T., Pinedo S., Torras X. & Ballesteros E. 2005 Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales ( Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Alberes coast (France, North-western Mediterranean). Marine Pollution Bulletin 50, 1472-89.
Vairappan C. S., Suzuki M., Motomura T. & Ichimura T. 2001 Pathogenic bacteria associated with lesions and thallus bleaching symptoms in the Japanese kelp Laminaria religiosa Miyabe (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Hydrobiologia 445, 183-91.
Valentine J. P. & Johnson C. R. 2004 Establishment of the introduced kelp Unidaria pinnatifida following dieback of the native macroalga Phyllospora comosa in Tasmania, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 55, 223-30.
Vergeer L. H. T. & den Hartog C. 1994 Omnipresence of Labyrinthulaceae in seagrasses. Aquatic Botany 48, 1-20.
Williamson J. E., Carson D. G., Nys R. d. & Steinberg P. D. 2004 Demographic consequences of an ontogenetic shift by a sea urchin in response to host plant chemistry. Ecology 85, 1355-71.
Wright J. T., De Nys R., Poore A. G. B. & Steinberg P. D. 2004 Chemical defense in a marine alga: heritability and the potential for selection by herbivores. Ecology 85, 2946-59.
Wright J. T., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. 2000 Geographic variation in halogenated furanones from the red alga Delisea pulchra and associated herbivores and epiphytes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 207, 227-41.
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References

Airoldi L. & Beck M. W. 2007 Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. In: Oceanography and Marine Biology, Vol 45 pp. 345-405. Crc Press-Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.
Alexander H. M. 1992 Evolution of disease resistance in natural plant populations. In: Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution and genetics (eds R. S. Fritz and E. L. Simms) pp. 327-44. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Bally M. & Garrabou J. 2007 Thermodependent bacterial pathogens and mass mortalities in temperate benthic communities: a new case of emerging disease linked to climate change. Global Change Biology 13, 2078-88.
Banin E., Ben-Haim Y., Israely T., Loya Y. & Rosenberg E. 2000 Effects of the environment on the bacterial bleaching of corals. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 123, 337-52.
Bell G. & Gonzalez A. 2009 Evolutionary rescue can prevent extinction following environmental change. Ecology Letters 12, 942-8.
Bellwood D. R., Hoey A. S., Ackerman J. L. & Depczynski M. 2006 Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs. Global Change Biology 12, 1587-94.
Bidart-Bouzat M. G. & Imeh-Nathaniel A. 2008 Global change effects on plant chemical ddefenses against insect herbivores. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 50, 1339-54.
Biere A., Marak H. B. & Damme J. M. M. V. 2004 Plant chemical efense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs? Oecologia 140, 430-41.
Booth D. J. & Beretta G., A. 2002 Changes in a fish assemblage after a coral bleaching event. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245, 205-12.
Boots M. 2008 Fight or learn to live with the consequences? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23, 248-50.
Borer E. T., Mitchell C. E., Power A. G. & Seabloom E. W. 2009 Consumers indirectly increase infection risk in grassland food webs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 503-6.
Burdon J. J. 1987 Diseases and plant population biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Campbell A. H. 2011 The ecology of bacterially-mediated bleaching in a chemically-defended seaweed. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Campbell A. H., Harder T., Nielsen S., Kjelleberg S. & Steinberg P. D. 2011. Climate change and disease: bleaching in a chemically-defended seaweed. Global Change Biology. 17, 2958-2970
Case R. J., Longford S. R., Campbell A. H., Low A., Tujula N. A., Steinberg P. D. & Kjelleberg S. 2011 Temperature induced bacterial virulence and bleaching disease in a chemically defended marine macroalga. Environmental Microbiology 13, 529-537.
Chapin F. S. I., Autumn K. & Pugnaire F. 1993 Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress. The American Naturalist 142, S78.
Cole R. G. & Babcock R. C. 1996 Mass mortality of a dominant kelp (Laminariales) at Goat Island, North-eastern New Zealand. Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 907-11.
Coleman M. A., Kelaher B. P., Steinberg P. D. & Millar A., J. K. 2008 Absence of a large brown macroalga on urbanised reefs around Sydney, Australia and evidence for historical decline. Journal of Phycology 44, 897-901.
Connell S. D., Russell B. D., Turner D. J., Shepherd S. A., Kildea T., Miller D., Airoldi L. & Cheshire A. 2008 Recovering a lost baseline: missing kelp forests from a metropolitan coast. Marine Ecology Progress Series 360, 63-72.
De Nys R., Wright A. D., Konig G. M. & Sticher O. 1993 New halogenated furanones from the marine alga Delisea pulchra (cf. fimbriata). Tetrahedron 49, 11213-20.
Dring M. J. 2006 Stress resistance and disease resistance in seaweeds: The role of reactive oxygen metabolism. In: Advances in Botanical Research, Vol 43 pp. 175-207. Academic Press Ltd, London.
Dworjanyn S. A., Wright J. T., Paul N. A., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. 2006 Cost of chemical defence in the red alga Delisea pulchra. Oikos 113, 13-22.
Edwards M. S. & Estes J. A. 2006 Catastrophe, recovery and range limitation in NE Pacific kelp forests: a large-scale perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320, 79-87.
Engel S., Jensen P. R. & Fenical W. 2002 Chemical ecology of marine microbial defense. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 1971-85.
Eranen J. K., Nilsen J., Zverev V. E. & Kozlov M. V. 2009 Mountain birch under multiple stressors; heavy metal-resistant populations co-resistant to biotic stress but maladapted to abiotic stress. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 840-51.
Ewald P. W. 1994 Evolution of Infectious Diseases. Oxford University Press, New York.
Feely R. A., Sabine C. L., Lee K., Berelson W., Kleypas J., Fabry V. J. & Millero F. J. 2004 Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans. Science 305, 362-6.
Frias-Lopez J., Zerkle A. L., Bonheyo G. T. & Fouke B. W. 2002 Partitioning of bacterial communities between seawater and healthy, black band diseased, and dead coral surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 2214-28.
Garcia-Vallve S., Romeu A. & Palau J. 2000 Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria and archeal complete genomes. Genome Research 10, 1719-25.
Gemmill A. W. & Read A. F. 1998 Counting the cost of disease resistance. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13, 8-9.
Graham M. H. 2002 Prolonged reproductive consequences of short-term biomass loss in seaweeds. Marine Biology 140, 901-11.
Harvell C. D., Kim K., Burkholder J. M., Colwell R. R., Epstein P. R., Grimes D. J., E. H. E., Lipp E. K., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Overstreet R. M., Porter J. W., Smith G. W. & Vasta G. R. 1999 Emerging marine diseases - climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285, 1505-10.
Harvell C. D., Mitchell C. E., Ward J. R., Altizer S., Dobson A. P., Ostfeld R. S. & Samuel M. D. 2002 Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296, 2158-62.
Hay M. E. 1991 Marine-terrestrial contrasts in the ecology of plant chemical efenses against herbivores. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6, 362-5.
Huntley B. 1991 How plants respond to climate change: migration rates, individualism and the consequences for plant communities. Annals of Botany 67 (S1), 15-22.
Jackson J. B. C. 2001 What was natural in the coastal oceans? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 5411-8.
Jackson J. B. C., Kirby M. X., Berger W. H., Bjorndal K. A., Botsford L. W., Bourque B. J., Bradbury R. H., Cooke R., Erlandson J., Estes J. A., Hughes T. P., Kidwell S., Lange C. B., Lenihan H. S., Pandolfi J. M., Peterson C. H., Steneck R. S., Tegner M. J. & Warner R. R. 2001 Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293, 629-37.
Kennedy S., Kuiken T., Jepson P. D., Deaville R., Forsyth M., Barrett T., van de Bildt M. W. G., Osterhaus A. D. M. E., Eybatov T., Duck C., Kydyrmanov A., Mitrofanov I. & Wilson S. 2000 Mass die-off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6, 637-9.
Klinkert B. & Narberhaus F. 2009 Microbial thermosensors. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 66, 2661-76.
Konkel M. E. & Tilly K. 2000 Temperature-regulated expression of bacterial virulence genes. Microbes and Infection 2, 157-66.
Kover P. X. & Schaal B. A. 2002 Genetic variation for disease resistance and tolerance among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 11270-4.
Lafferty K. D. 2009 The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases. Ecology 90, 888-900.
Lafferty K. D. & Holt R. D. 2003 How should environmental stress affect the population dynamics of disease? Ecology Letters 6, 654-64.
Lamb C. & Dixon R. A. 1997 The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48, 251-75.
Manefield M., Welch M., Givskov M., Salmond G. P. C. & Kjelleberg S. 2001 Halogenated furanones from the red alga, Delisea pulchra, inhibit carbapenem antibiotic synthesis and exoenzyme virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora. FEMS Microbiology Letters 205, 131-8.
Martin Y., Bonnefont J. L. & Chancerelle L. 2002 Gorgonians mass mortality during the 1999 late summer in French Mediterranean coastal waters: the bacterial hypothesis. Water Research 36, 779-82.
Medel R. 2001 Assessment of correlational selection on tolerance and resistance traits in a host plant-parasitic plant interaction. Evolutionary Ecology 15, 37-52.
Myers J. H. & Kuken B. 1995 Changes in the fecundity of tent caterpillars: a correlated character of disease resistance or sublethal effect of disease? Oecologia 103, 475-80.
Pantos O., Cooney R. P., Le Tissier M. D. A., Barer M. R., O'Donnell A. G. & Bythell J. C. 2003 The bacterial ecology of a plague-like disease affecting the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis. Environmental Microbiology 5, 370-82.
Pounds A. J., Bustamante M. R., Coloma L. A., Consuegra J. A., Fogden M. P. L., Foster P. N., La Marca E., Masters K. L., Merino-Viteri A., Puschendorf R., Ron S. R., Sanchez-Azofeifa G. A., Still C. J. & Young B. E. 2006 Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439, 161-7.
Przeslawski R., Ahyong S., Byrne M., Worheides G. & Hutchings P. 2008 Beyond corals and fish: the effects of climate change on noncoral benthic invertebrates of tropical reefs. Global Change Biology 14, 2773-95.
Raffel T. R., Rohr J. R., Kiesecker J. M. & Hudson P. J. 2006 Negative effects of changing temperature on amphibian immunity under field conditions. Functional Ecology 20, 819-28.
Reinheimer G. 1992 Aquatic Microbiology. Wiley, New York.
Ridgeway K. R. 2007 Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L13613.
Rogers C. N., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. 2003 Ecology of the sea hare Aplysia parvula (Opisthobranchia) in New South Wales, Australia. Molluscan Research 23, 185-98.
Rosenberg E. & Ben-Haim Y. 2002 Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environmental Microbiology 4, 318-26.
Rosenberg E., Koren O., Reshef L., Efrony R. & Zilber-Rosenberg I. 2007 The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution. Nat Rev Micro 5, 355-62.
Ross C., Kupper F. C. & Jacobs R. S. 2006 Involvement of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the wound response of Dasycladus vermicularis. Chemistry & Biology 13, 353-64.
Ruuhola T. & Yang S. 2006 Wound-induced oxidative responses in mountain birch leaves. Annals of Botany 97, 29-37.
Sait S. M., Begon M. & Thompson D. J. 1994 The effects of a sublethal baculovirus infection in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Journal of Animal Ecology 63, 541-50.
Santos R. & Duarte P. 1996 Fecundity, spore recruitment and size in Gelidium sesquipedale (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 326-327, 223-8.
Schnitzler I., Pohnert G., Hay M. E. & Boland W. 2001 Chemical defense of brown algae ( Dictyopteris spp.) against the herbivorous amphipod Ampithoe longimana. Oecologia 126, 515-21.
Scrosati R. & DeWreede R. E. 1998 The impact of frond crowding on frond bleaching in the clonal intertidal alga Mazella cornucopiae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinaceae) from British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Phycology 34, 228-32.
Sotka E. E., Taylor R. B. & Hay M. E. 2002 Tissue-specific induction of resistance to herbivores in a brown seaweed: the importance of direct grazing versus waterborne signals from grazed neighbors. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 277, 1-12.
Steinberg P. D., De Nys R. & Kjelleberg S. 2002 Chemical cues for surface colonization. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 1935-51.
Steinberg P. D., Schneider R. & Kjelleberg S. 1997 Chemical defenses of seaweeds against microbial colonization. Biodegradation 8, 211-20.
Steneck R. S., Graham M. H., Bourque B. J., Corbett D., Erlandson J. M., Estes J. A. & Tegner M. J. 2002 Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29, 436-59.
Stephens C. & Murray W. 2001 Pathogen evolution: How good bacteria go bad. Current Biology 11, R53-R6.
Sussman M., Loya Y., Fine M. & Rosenberg E. 2003 The marine fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a winter reservoir and spring-summer vector for the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Environmental Microbiology 5, 250-5.
Thibaut T., Pinedo S., Torras X. & Ballesteros E. 2005 Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales ( Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Alberes coast (France, North-western Mediterranean). Marine Pollution Bulletin 50, 1472-89.
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