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Shifts in the geographic range towards higher altitudes are anticipated for many species in south-eastern Australia in response to future climate warming. This is particularly the case for the Snowy Mountains, where a substantial reduction in the snow cover is expected to have a major impact on the distribution of species. A number of large marsupial herbivores occur at lower subalpine elevations, and a shift in their distribution to higher altitudes due to climate change will result in increased grazing of the vegetation of the alpine area. Common wombats Vombatus ursinus were chosen as a model species for examining range shifts because they are common in subalpine areas, but rarely occur above the tree line in the alpine zone. Changes in wombat habitat over time were predicted using a rule-based modelling approach that incorporates resources important to wombats as well as changes in snow depth with climate change. These models predicted a 16% increase in the area of suitable wombat habitat across the study area by 2050. This increase was largely within higher subalpine altitudes. Thus, shifts in wombat distribution in the Snowy Mountains with climate change are likely to occur at higher subalpine altitudes as a filling process within the extent of occurrence, rather than an expansion beyond the range boundary into the alpine zone.

Beever, E.A., Tausch, R.J. and Thogmartin, W.E. 2008. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges. Plant Ecology 196: 163-84.
Beniston, M. 1997. Variations of snowdepth and duration in the Swiss Alps over the last 50 years: Links to changes in large-scale climatic forcings. Climatic Change 36: 281-300.
Beniston, M. 2003. Climate change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Climatic Change 59: 5-31.
Bihr, K.J. and Smith, R.J. 1998. Location, structure, and contents of burrows of Spermophilus lateralis and Tamias minimus, two ground-dwelling sciurids. The Southwestern Naturalist 43: 352-62.
Borchard, P. and Wright, I.A. 2010. Using camera-trap data to model habitat use by bare-nosed wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) and cattle ( Bos taurus) in a south-eastern Australian agricultural riparian ecosystem. Australian Mammalogy 32: 16-22.
Bridle, K.L. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2001. Impacts of grazing by vertebrate herbivores on the flower stem production of tall alpine herbs, Eastern Central Plateau, Tasmania. Australian Journal of Botany 49: 459-70.
Brown, R.D. 2000. Northern hemisphere snow cover variability and change, 1915-97. Journal of Climate 13: 2339-55.
Brown, B.C. 2001. Marsupial roadkill on the Kosciuszko Road in the Australian Alps: an investigation of factors influencing animal-vehicle collisions. Honours Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Bruggeman, J.E., Garrott, R.A., Bjornlie, D.D., White, P.J., Watson, F.G. and Borkowski, J. 2006. Temporal variability in winter travel patterns of Yellowstone bison: the effects of road grooming. Ecological Applications 16: 1539-54.
Ciarniello, L., Boyce, M., Heard, D. and Seip, D. 2005. Denning behavior and den site selection of grizzly bears along the Parsnip River, British Columbia, Canada. Ursus 16: 47-58.
Costin, A.B. 1954. A study of the ecosystems of the Monaro region of New South Wales with special reference to soil erosion. Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales, Sydney.
Costin, A.B. 1989. The Alps in a global perspective. Pp. 7-19 in The Scientific Significance of the Australian Alps: The Proceedings of the First Fenner Conference on the Environment, edited by R. Good. Australian Alps National Parks Liaison Committee, Canberra.
DECC. 2008. Summary of climate change impacts South East Region. NSW Climate Change Action Plan. Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Sydney.
DECC. undated. Preliminary biophysical assessment of climate change impacts in NSW. Biodiversity: NSW Alps, Central and Southern Tablelands. Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW.
Del Moral, R. 1984. The impact of the Olympic marmot on subalpine vegetation structure. American Journal of Botany 71: 1228-36.
Dunsmore, J.D. 1974. The rabbit in subalpine south-eastern Australia. I. Population structure and productivity. Australian Wildlife Research 1: 1-16.
Erschbamer, B., Kiebacher, T., Mallaun, M. and Unterluggauer, P. 2009. Short-term signals of climate change along an altitudinal gradient in the South Alps. Plant Ecology 202: 79-89.
Ford, F. 2004. Report on habitat use by mountain pygmy possums and rabbits at Charlotte Pass, with summary of post-fire feral predator control program, December 2002-March 2003. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan.
Foster, J.L. 1989. The significance of the date of snow disappearance on the arctic tundra as a possible indicator of climate change. Arctic and Alpine Research 21: 60-70.
Gillis, E.A., Hik, D.S., Boonstra, R., Karels, T.J. and Krebs, C.J. 2005. Being high is better: effects of elevation and habitat on arctic ground squirrel demography. Oikos 108: 231-40.
Gottfried, M., Pauli, H., Reiter, K. and Grabherr, G. 1999. A fine-scaled predictive model for changes in species distribution patterns of high mountain plants induced by climate warming. Diversity and Distributions 5: 241-51.
Green, K. 1998. Snow, A Natural History; An Uncertain Future. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Green, K. 2004. Wombats in winter. Victorian Naturalist 121: 69-70.
Green, K. 2005. Winter home range and foraging of common wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) in patchily burnt subalpine areas of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Wildlife Research 32: 525-9.
Green, K. 2006. Effect of variation in snowpack on timing of bird migration in the Snowy Mountains of south-eastern Australia. Emu 106: 187-92.
Green, K. and Osborne, W. 1981. The diet of foxes, Vulpes vulpes (L.), in relation to abundance of prey above the winter snowline in New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 349-60.
Green, K. and Osborne, W.S. 1994. Wildlife of the Australian Snow Country. Reed, Sydney.
Green, K. and Osborne, W.S. 1998. Snow as a defining character of the alpine/subalpine fauna. Pp. 141-64 in Snow, A Natural History; An Uncertain Future, edited by K. Green. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Green, K. and Pickering, C. 2002. A scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Australian Snowy Mountains in relation to climate change. Pp. 241-9 in Mountain Biodiversity: A Global Assessment, edited by C. Koerner and E.M. Spehn. Parthenon Publishing, London.
Guo, Q., Taper, M., Schoenberger, M. and Brandle, J. 2005. Spatial-temporal population dynamics across species range: from centre to margin. Oikos 108: 47-57.
Helmuth, B., Kingsolver, J.G. and Carrington, E. 2005. Biophysics, physiological ecology, and climate change: does mechanism matter? Annual Review of Physiology 67: 177-201.
Hennessy, K., Whetton, P., Smith, I., Bathols, J., Hutchinson, M. and Sharples, J. 2003. The impact of climate change on snow conditions in mainland Australia. CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria.
Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 56-61.
Hughes, L. 2003. Climate change and Australia: Trends, projections and impacts. Austral Ecology 28: 423-43.
Inouye, D.W., Barr, B., Armitage, K.B. and Inouye, B.D. 2000. Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97: 1630-3.
IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis. WMO, Geneva.
Jarema, S.I., Samson, J., Mcgill, B.J. and Humphries, M.M. 2009. Variation in abundance across a species’ range predicts climate change responses in the range interior will exceed those at the edge: a case study with North American beaver. Global Change Biology 15: 508-22.
Johnson, C. and Seip, D. 2008. Relationship between resource selection, distribution, and abundance: a test with implications to theory and conservation. Population Ecology 50: 145-57.
Jones, H.G., Pomeroy, J.W., Walker, D.A. and Hoham, R.W. 2001. Snow Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Examination of Snow-Covered Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kappelle, M., Van Vuuren, M.M.I. and Baas, P. 1999. Effects of climate change on biodiversity: a review and identification of key research issues. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1383-97.
Kearney, M., Phillips, B.L., Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Betts, G. and Porter, W.P. 2008. Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates. Ecography 31: 423-34.
Leigh, J.H., Wimbush, D.J., Wood, D.H., Holgate, M.D., Slee, A.V., Stanger, M.G. and Forrester, R.I. 1987. Effects of rabbit grazing and fire on a subalpine environment. I. Herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Australian Journal of Botany 35: 433-64.
Lucas, C., Hennessy, K., Mills, G. and Bathols, J. 2007. Bushfire Weather in Southeast Australia: Recent Trends and Projected Climate Change Impacts. Bushfire CRC, Melbourne.
López, B., Pino, J. and López, A. 2010. Explaining the successful introduction of the alpine marmot in the Pyrenees. Biological Invasions 12: 3205-17.
Marks, C.A. 1998. Review of the humaneness of destruction techniques used on the common wombat Vombatus ursinus in Victoria. Pp. 287-97 in Wombats, edited by R.T. Wells and P.A. Pridmore. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia.
Martin, K. 2001. Wildlife in alpine and sub-alpine habitats. Pp. 285-310 in Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington, edited by D.H. Johnson and T.A. O'Neil. Oregon State University Press.
Matthews, A. 2010. Changes in fine-scale movement and foraging patterns of common wombats along a snow depth gradient. Wildlife Research 37: 175-82.
Matthews, A. 2011. Climate change influences on the distribution and resource use of common wombats Vombatus ursinus in the Snowy Mountains, Australia. PhD thesis, Charles Sturt University, Albury.
Matthews, A., Spooner, P.G., Lunney, D., Green, K. and Klomp, N.I. 2010. The influences of snow cover, vegetation and topography on the upper range limit of common wombats Vombatus ursinus in the subalpine zone, Australia. Diversity and Distributions 16: 277-87.
McCarty, J.P. 2001. Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conservation Biology 15: 320-31.
McIlroy, J.C. 1973. Aspects of the ecology of the common wombat, Vombatus ursinus (Shaw 1800). PhD thesis, ANU, Canberra.
McLoughlin, P.D., Morris, D.W., Fortin, D., Wal, E.V. and Contasti, A.L. 2010. Considering ecological dynamics in resource selection functions. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 4-12.
Myers, K. and Parker, B.S. 1965. A study of the biology of the wild rabbit in climatically different regions in eastern Australia. CSIRO Wildlife Research 10: 1-32.
Nicholls, N. 2005. Climate variability, climate change and the Australian snow season. Australian Meteorological Magazine 54: 177-85.
Nogués-Bravo, D., Araújo, M.B., Errea, M.P. and Martínez-Rica, J.P. 2007. Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st Century. Global Environmental Change 17: 420-8.
NPWS. 2008. Resort Roundup: A newsletter for the resorts community of Kosciuszko National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Jindabyne.
Osborne, W.S., Davis, M.S. and Green, K. 1998. Temporal and spatial variation in snow cover. Pp. 56-67 in Snow: A Natural History; An Uncertain Future, edited by K. Green. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Ottersen, G., Planque, B., Belgrano, A., Post, E., Reid, P.C. and Stenseth, N.C. 2001. Ecological effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Oecologia 128: 1-14.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37-42.
Pauli, H., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K., Klettner, C. and Grabherr, G. 2007. Signals of range expansions and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994-2004) at the GLORIA* master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology 13: 147-56.
Pickering, C. and Armstrong, T. 2003. The potential impact of climate change on plant communities in the Kosciuszko alpine zone. Victorian Naturalist 120: 15-24.
Pickering, C. and Buckley, R. 2003. Swarming to the summit. Mountain Research and Development 23: 230-3.
Pickering, C., Good, R. and Green, K. 2004. Potential effects of global warming on the biota of the Australian Alps. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra.
Post, E., Forchhammer, M.C. and Stenseth, N.C. 1999. Population ecology and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Ecological Bulletins 47: 117-25.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D. and Croft, D.B. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the Snowy Mountain Highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological conservation 126: 474-90.
Roger, E., Laffan, S. and Ramp, D. 2011. Road impacts a tipping point for wildlife populations in threatened landscapes. Population Ecology 53: 215-27.
Root, T.L., Price, J.T., Hall, K.R., Schneider, S.H., Rosenzweig, C. and Pounds, J.A. 2003. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421: 57-60.
Schadt, S., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T. and Trepl, L. 2002. Rule-based assessment of suitable habitat and patch connectivity for the Eurasian lynx. Ecological Applications 12: 1469-83.
Schmitz, O.J., Post, E., Burns, C.E. and Johnston, K.M. 2003. Ecosystem responses to global climate change: moving beyond color mapping. Bioscience 53: 1199-205.
Shaver, G.R. 2000. Global warming and terrestrial ecosystems: a conceptual framework for analysis. Bioscience 50: 871-82.
Shoo, L.P., Williams, S.E. and Hero, J.M. 2005. Potential decoupling of trends in distribution area and population size of species with climate change. Global Change Biology 11: 1469-76.
Stenseth, N.C., Mysterud, A., Ottersen, G., Hurrell, J.W., Chan, K.-S. and Lima, M. 2002. Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297: 1292-6.
Thomas, C.D., Bodsworth, E.J., Wilson, R.J., Simmons, A.D., Davies, Z.G., Musche, M. and Conradt, L. 2001. Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins. Nature 411: 577-81.
Triggs, B. 2009. Wombats. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Wahren, C.H.A., Papst, W.A. and Williams, R.J. 1994. Long-term vegetation change in relation to cattle grazing in subalpine grassland and heathland on the Bogong High Plains: an analysis of vegetation records from 1945 to 1994. Australian Journal of Botany 42: 607-40.
Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee, T.J.C., Fromentin, J.-M., Hoegh-Guldberg, O. and Bairlein, F. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389-95.
Wardle, P. 1989. The Australian mountains - worlds apart? Pp. 21-31 in The Scientific Significance of the Australian Alps. The Proceedings of the First Fenner Conference on the Environment, edited by R. Good. The Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
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References

Beever, E.A., Tausch, R.J. and Thogmartin, W.E. 2008. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges. Plant Ecology 196: 163-84.
Beniston, M. 1997. Variations of snowdepth and duration in the Swiss Alps over the last 50 years: Links to changes in large-scale climatic forcings. Climatic Change 36: 281-300.
Beniston, M. 2003. Climate change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Climatic Change 59: 5-31.
Bihr, K.J. and Smith, R.J. 1998. Location, structure, and contents of burrows of Spermophilus lateralis and Tamias minimus, two ground-dwelling sciurids. The Southwestern Naturalist 43: 352-62.
Borchard, P. and Wright, I.A. 2010. Using camera-trap data to model habitat use by bare-nosed wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) and cattle ( Bos taurus) in a south-eastern Australian agricultural riparian ecosystem. Australian Mammalogy 32: 16-22.
Bridle, K.L. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2001. Impacts of grazing by vertebrate herbivores on the flower stem production of tall alpine herbs, Eastern Central Plateau, Tasmania. Australian Journal of Botany 49: 459-70.
Brown, R.D. 2000. Northern hemisphere snow cover variability and change, 1915-97. Journal of Climate 13: 2339-55.
Brown, B.C. 2001. Marsupial roadkill on the Kosciuszko Road in the Australian Alps: an investigation of factors influencing animal-vehicle collisions. Honours Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Bruggeman, J.E., Garrott, R.A., Bjornlie, D.D., White, P.J., Watson, F.G. and Borkowski, J. 2006. Temporal variability in winter travel patterns of Yellowstone bison: the effects of road grooming. Ecological Applications 16: 1539-54.
Ciarniello, L., Boyce, M., Heard, D. and Seip, D. 2005. Denning behavior and den site selection of grizzly bears along the Parsnip River, British Columbia, Canada. Ursus 16: 47-58.
Costin, A.B. 1954. A study of the ecosystems of the Monaro region of New South Wales with special reference to soil erosion. Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales, Sydney.
Costin, A.B. 1989. The Alps in a global perspective. Pp. 7-19 in The Scientific Significance of the Australian Alps: The Proceedings of the First Fenner Conference on the Environment, edited by R. Good. Australian Alps National Parks Liaison Committee, Canberra.
DECC. 2008. Summary of climate change impacts South East Region. NSW Climate Change Action Plan. Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW, Sydney.
DECC. undated. Preliminary biophysical assessment of climate change impacts in NSW. Biodiversity: NSW Alps, Central and Southern Tablelands. Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW.
Del Moral, R. 1984. The impact of the Olympic marmot on subalpine vegetation structure. American Journal of Botany 71: 1228-36.
Dunsmore, J.D. 1974. The rabbit in subalpine south-eastern Australia. I. Population structure and productivity. Australian Wildlife Research 1: 1-16.
Erschbamer, B., Kiebacher, T., Mallaun, M. and Unterluggauer, P. 2009. Short-term signals of climate change along an altitudinal gradient in the South Alps. Plant Ecology 202: 79-89.
Ford, F. 2004. Report on habitat use by mountain pygmy possums and rabbits at Charlotte Pass, with summary of post-fire feral predator control program, December 2002-March 2003. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan.
Foster, J.L. 1989. The significance of the date of snow disappearance on the arctic tundra as a possible indicator of climate change. Arctic and Alpine Research 21: 60-70.
Gillis, E.A., Hik, D.S., Boonstra, R., Karels, T.J. and Krebs, C.J. 2005. Being high is better: effects of elevation and habitat on arctic ground squirrel demography. Oikos 108: 231-40.
Gottfried, M., Pauli, H., Reiter, K. and Grabherr, G. 1999. A fine-scaled predictive model for changes in species distribution patterns of high mountain plants induced by climate warming. Diversity and Distributions 5: 241-51.
Green, K. 1998. Snow, A Natural History; An Uncertain Future. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Green, K. 2004. Wombats in winter. Victorian Naturalist 121: 69-70.
Green, K. 2005. Winter home range and foraging of common wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) in patchily burnt subalpine areas of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Wildlife Research 32: 525-9.
Green, K. 2006. Effect of variation in snowpack on timing of bird migration in the Snowy Mountains of south-eastern Australia. Emu 106: 187-92.
Green, K. and Osborne, W. 1981. The diet of foxes, Vulpes vulpes (L.), in relation to abundance of prey above the winter snowline in New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 8: 349-60.
Green, K. and Osborne, W.S. 1994. Wildlife of the Australian Snow Country. Reed, Sydney.
Green, K. and Osborne, W.S. 1998. Snow as a defining character of the alpine/subalpine fauna. Pp. 141-64 in Snow, A Natural History; An Uncertain Future, edited by K. Green. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Green, K. and Pickering, C. 2002. A scenario for mammal and bird diversity in the Australian Snowy Mountains in relation to climate change. Pp. 241-9 in Mountain Biodiversity: A Global Assessment, edited by C. Koerner and E.M. Spehn. Parthenon Publishing, London.
Guo, Q., Taper, M., Schoenberger, M. and Brandle, J. 2005. Spatial-temporal population dynamics across species range: from centre to margin. Oikos 108: 47-57.
Helmuth, B., Kingsolver, J.G. and Carrington, E. 2005. Biophysics, physiological ecology, and climate change: does mechanism matter? Annual Review of Physiology 67: 177-201.
Hennessy, K., Whetton, P., Smith, I., Bathols, J., Hutchinson, M. and Sharples, J. 2003. The impact of climate change on snow conditions in mainland Australia. CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria.
Hughes, L. 2000. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 56-61.
Hughes, L. 2003. Climate change and Australia: Trends, projections and impacts. Austral Ecology 28: 423-43.
Inouye, D.W., Barr, B., Armitage, K.B. and Inouye, B.D. 2000. Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97: 1630-3.
IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis. WMO, Geneva.
Jarema, S.I., Samson, J., Mcgill, B.J. and Humphries, M.M. 2009. Variation in abundance across a species’ range predicts climate change responses in the range interior will exceed those at the edge: a case study with North American beaver. Global Change Biology 15: 508-22.
Johnson, C. and Seip, D. 2008. Relationship between resource selection, distribution, and abundance: a test with implications to theory and conservation. Population Ecology 50: 145-57.
Jones, H.G., Pomeroy, J.W., Walker, D.A. and Hoham, R.W. 2001. Snow Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Examination of Snow-Covered Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kappelle, M., Van Vuuren, M.M.I. and Baas, P. 1999. Effects of climate change on biodiversity: a review and identification of key research issues. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1383-97.
Kearney, M., Phillips, B.L., Tracy, C.R., Christian, K.A., Betts, G. and Porter, W.P. 2008. Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates. Ecography 31: 423-34.
Leigh, J.H., Wimbush, D.J., Wood, D.H., Holgate, M.D., Slee, A.V., Stanger, M.G. and Forrester, R.I. 1987. Effects of rabbit grazing and fire on a subalpine environment. I. Herbaceous and shrubby vegetation. Australian Journal of Botany 35: 433-64.
Lucas, C., Hennessy, K., Mills, G. and Bathols, J. 2007. Bushfire Weather in Southeast Australia: Recent Trends and Projected Climate Change Impacts. Bushfire CRC, Melbourne.
López, B., Pino, J. and López, A. 2010. Explaining the successful introduction of the alpine marmot in the Pyrenees. Biological Invasions 12: 3205-17.
Marks, C.A. 1998. Review of the humaneness of destruction techniques used on the common wombat Vombatus ursinus in Victoria. Pp. 287-97 in Wombats, edited by R.T. Wells and P.A. Pridmore. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia.
Martin, K. 2001. Wildlife in alpine and sub-alpine habitats. Pp. 285-310 in Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington, edited by D.H. Johnson and T.A. O'Neil. Oregon State University Press.
Matthews, A. 2010. Changes in fine-scale movement and foraging patterns of common wombats along a snow depth gradient. Wildlife Research 37: 175-82.
Matthews, A. 2011. Climate change influences on the distribution and resource use of common wombats Vombatus ursinus in the Snowy Mountains, Australia. PhD thesis, Charles Sturt University, Albury.
Matthews, A., Spooner, P.G., Lunney, D., Green, K. and Klomp, N.I. 2010. The influences of snow cover, vegetation and topography on the upper range limit of common wombats Vombatus ursinus in the subalpine zone, Australia. Diversity and Distributions 16: 277-87.
McCarty, J.P. 2001. Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conservation Biology 15: 320-31.
McIlroy, J.C. 1973. Aspects of the ecology of the common wombat, Vombatus ursinus (Shaw 1800). PhD thesis, ANU, Canberra.
McLoughlin, P.D., Morris, D.W., Fortin, D., Wal, E.V. and Contasti, A.L. 2010. Considering ecological dynamics in resource selection functions. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 4-12.
Myers, K. and Parker, B.S. 1965. A study of the biology of the wild rabbit in climatically different regions in eastern Australia. CSIRO Wildlife Research 10: 1-32.
Nicholls, N. 2005. Climate variability, climate change and the Australian snow season. Australian Meteorological Magazine 54: 177-85.
Nogués-Bravo, D., Araújo, M.B., Errea, M.P. and Martínez-Rica, J.P. 2007. Exposure of global mountain systems to climate warming during the 21st Century. Global Environmental Change 17: 420-8.
NPWS. 2008. Resort Roundup: A newsletter for the resorts community of Kosciuszko National Park. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Jindabyne.
Osborne, W.S., Davis, M.S. and Green, K. 1998. Temporal and spatial variation in snow cover. Pp. 56-67 in Snow: A Natural History; An Uncertain Future, edited by K. Green. Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Canberra.
Ottersen, G., Planque, B., Belgrano, A., Post, E., Reid, P.C. and Stenseth, N.C. 2001. Ecological effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Oecologia 128: 1-14.
Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37-42.
Pauli, H., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K., Klettner, C. and Grabherr, G. 2007. Signals of range expansions and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994-2004) at the GLORIA* master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology 13: 147-56.
Pickering, C. and Armstrong, T. 2003. The potential impact of climate change on plant communities in the Kosciuszko alpine zone. Victorian Naturalist 120: 15-24.
Pickering, C. and Buckley, R. 2003. Swarming to the summit. Mountain Research and Development 23: 230-3.
Pickering, C., Good, R. and Green, K. 2004. Potential effects of global warming on the biota of the Australian Alps. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra.
Post, E., Forchhammer, M.C. and Stenseth, N.C. 1999. Population ecology and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Ecological Bulletins 47: 117-25.
Ramp, D., Caldwell, J., Edwards, K.A., Warton, D. and Croft, D.B. 2005. Modelling of wildlife fatality hotspots along the Snowy Mountain Highway in New South Wales, Australia. Biological conservation 126: 474-90.
Roger, E., Laffan, S. and Ramp, D. 2011. Road impacts a tipping point for wildlife populations in threatened landscapes. Population Ecology 53: 215-27.
Root, T.L., Price, J.T., Hall, K.R., Schneider, S.H., Rosenzweig, C. and Pounds, J.A. 2003. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421: 57-60.
Schadt, S., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T. and Trepl, L. 2002. Rule-based assessment of suitable habitat and patch connectivity for the Eurasian lynx. Ecological Applications 12: 1469-83.
Schmitz, O.J., Post, E., Burns, C.E. and Johnston, K.M. 2003. Ecosystem responses to global climate change: moving beyond color mapping. Bioscience 53: 1199-205.
Shaver, G.R. 2000. Global warming and terrestrial ecosystems: a conceptual framework for analysis. Bioscience 50: 871-82.
Shoo, L.P., Williams, S.E. and Hero, J.M. 2005. Potential decoupling of trends in distribution area and population size of species with climate change. Global Change Biology 11: 1469-76.
Stenseth, N.C., Mysterud, A., Ottersen, G., Hurrell, J.W., Chan, K.-S. and Lima, M. 2002. Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297: 1292-6.
Thomas, C.D., Bodsworth, E.J., Wilson, R.J., Simmons, A.D., Davies, Z.G., Musche, M. and Conradt, L. 2001. Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins. Nature 411: 577-81.
Triggs, B. 2009. Wombats. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Wahren, C.H.A., Papst, W.A. and Williams, R.J. 1994. Long-term vegetation change in relation to cattle grazing in subalpine grassland and heathland on the Bogong High Plains: an analysis of vegetation records from 1945 to 1994. Australian Journal of Botany 42: 607-40.
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