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Predicting how animal species might respond to climate change is an important step in developing effective tools for managing biodiversity in a changing climate. This task is made difficult due to a lack of reliable data on the animals and how they will respond to changes in their habitat. The collections of animals in zoos are an important resource that can be used to address some of the gaps in our knowledge, particularly when integrated with field research and conservation planning. Zoos can increase our understanding of the impact of wildlife disease by conducting integrated disease surveillance programs and developing treatment or management options. Reproductive technologies, validated in zoos, can provide value added census data to inform on population viability and function as well as numbers. Determining species preferences and tolerance limits will also inform the triggers that are likely to instigate migration, adaptation or extinction. Zoos offer a controlled environment that allows the examination of the impacts of interdependent factors such as dietary requirements, water tolerance, response to stressors and treatment of disease. Further, zoos maintain species in captivity as insurance against catastrophe in the wild. With additional data, emphasis could be placed on keystone species which will improve climate change resilience for the ecosystem and catchment area. Finally, zoos provide a resource to communicate the implications of climate change to the public and bring about behaviour change. In total, the skills developed in intensively managing small populations and opportunities presented by well managed, captive populations are underutilised and will become more relevant in implementing mitigation strategies for the management of biodiversity under a changing climate.

Ainley, D., and Hyrenbach, K. 2010. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabirdpopulation trends in the California current system (1985-2006). Progress in Oceanography 84: 242-254.
Aruji, Y., Tamura, K., Sugita, S., and Adachi, Y. 2004. Intestinal microflora in 45 crows in Ueno zoo and the in vitro susceptibilities of 29 Escherichia coli isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 66: 1283-1286.
Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E., and Rothery, P. 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432: 100-103.
Barth, J., Menge, B., Lubchenco, J., Chan, F., Bane, J., Kirincich, A., McManus, M., Nielsen, K., Pierce, S., and Washburn, L. 2007. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 3719-3724.
Barth, L., Angerbjörn, A., and Tannerfeldt, M. 2000. Are Norwegian lemmings Lemmus lemmus avoided by arctic Alopex lagopus or red foxes Vulpes vulpes? A feeding experiment. Wildlife Biology 6: 101-109.
Black, P., Cronin, J., Morrissy, C., and Westbury, H. 2001. Serological examination for evidence of infection with Hendra and Nipah viruses in Queensland piggeries. Australian Veterinary Journal 79: 424-426.
Bodetti, T., Jacobson, E., Wan, C., Hafner, L., Pospischil, A., Rose, K., and Timms, P. 2002. Molecular evidence to support the expansion of the hostrange of chlamydophila pneumoniae to Include reptiles as well as humans, horses, koalas and amphibians. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 25: 146-152.
Burgess, E., Keeley, T., and Lanyon, J. 2009. Determining reproductive status in wild dugongs. InAustralian Marine Sciences Association Conference.” Adelaide.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A., and Hyatt, A. 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health. Science 287: 443.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A., and Hyatt, A. 2001. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78: 103-116.
Folke, C. 2010. How resilient are ecosystems to global environmental change? Sustainability Science 5: 151-154.
Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., and Elmqvist, T. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35: 557-581.
Fontaine, M., Tolley, K., Michaux, J., Birkun, A., Ferreira, M., Jauniaux, T., Llavona, A., Ozturk, B., Ozturk, A., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Sequeira, M., Bouquegneau, J., and Baird, S. 2010. Genetic and historic evidence for climate-driven population fragmentation in a top cetacean predator: the harbour porpoises in European water. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences 277: 2829-2837.
France, K., and Duffy, J. 2006. Diversity and dispersal interactively affect predictability of ecosystem function. Nature 441: 1139-1143.
Gonzalez, A., and Chaneton, E. J. 2002. Heterotroph species extinction, abundance and biomass dynamics in an experimentally fragmented microecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 594-602.
Griffith, T. M., and Watson, M. A. 2006. Is evolution necessary for range expansion? Manipulating reproductive timing of a weedy annual transplanted beyond its range. American Naturalist 167: 153-64.
Hawkes, L., Broderick, A., Godfrey, M., and Godley, B. 2007. Investigating the potential impacts of climate change on a marine turtle population. Global Change Biology 13: 923-932.
Hewitt, G. M., and Nichols, R. A. 2005. Genetic and Evolutionary Impacts of Climate Change. In “Climate change and biodiversity”. T. E. Lovejoy, and L. Hannah (Eds). Yale University Press, New Haven and London 176-192.
Hilderbrand, G. V., Farley, S. D., Robbins, C. T., Hanley, T. A., Titus, K., and Servheen, C. 1996. Use of stable isotopes to determine diets of living and extinct bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 74: 2080-2088.
Hunt, K. E., Rolland, R. M., Kraus, S. D., and Wasser, S. K. 2006. Analysis of fecal glucocorticoids in the North Atlantic right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis). General and Comparative Endocrinology 148: 260-72.
Hunter, R. P., and Isaza, R. 2002. Zoological pharmacology: current status, issues, and potential. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54: 787-793.
Janzen, F. 1994. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91: 7487-7490.
Kock, R., Woodford, M., and Rossiter, P. 2010. Disease risks associated with the translocation of wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 29: 329-350.
Marples, N., Quinlan, M., Thomas, R., and DJ, K. 2007. Deactivation of dietary wariness through experience of novel food. Behavioural Ecology 18: 803-810.
Mendes, S., Newton, J., Reid, R., Zuur, A., and Pierce, G. 2007. Teeth reveal sperm whale ontogenetic movements and trophic ecology through the profiling of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Oecologia 151: 605-615.
Midgley, G. F., Thuiller, W., and Higgins, S. I. 2005. Plant species migration as a key uncertainty in predicting future implacts of climate change on ecosystems: progress and challenges. In “Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world”. J. G. Canadell, D. E. Pataki, and P. L.F. (Eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 129-137.
Rapport, D. J., Böhm, G., Buckingham, D., Cairns, J. J., Costanza, R., JR, K., De Kruijf, H. A. M., Levins, R., McMichael, A. J., Nielsen, N. O., and Whitford, W. G. 2001. Ecosystem health: the concept, the ISEH, and the important tasks ahead. Ecosystem Health 5: 82-90.
Raymundoa, L., Halforda, A., Maypab, A., and Kerra, A. 2009. Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106: 17067-17070.
Reich, K., and Worthy, G. 2006. An isotopic assessment of the feeding habits of free-ranging manatees. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 322: 303-309.
Relman, D. A., Hamburg, M. A., Choffens, E. R., and Mack, A. 2008. Global climate change and extreme weather events - Understanding the contributions to infectious disease emergence. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
Shultz, M., Piatt, J., Harding, A., Kettle, A., and Van Pelt, T. 2009. Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 393: 247-258.
Simmonds, M., and Isaac, S. 2007. The impacts of climate change on marine mammals: early signs of significant problems. Oryx 41: 19-26.
Songsasen, N., Rodden, M., Brown, J., and Wildt, D. 2006. Patterns of fecal gonadal hormone metabolites in the maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus). Theriogenology 66: 1743-50.
Steele, K., Linn, M., Schoepp, R., Komar, N., Geisbert, T., Manduca, R., Calle, P., Raphael, B., Clippinger, T., Larsen, T., Smith, J., Lanciotti, R., Panella, N., and McNamara, T. 2000. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Veterinary Pathology 37: 208-224.
Tovar, G., Cornejo, J., Macek, M., and Dierenfeld, E. S. 2009. Intake and Digestion of Horned Guan Oreophasis derbianus Diets Measured in Three Mexican Zoos. Zoo Biology 28: 319-330.
Tovar, T., Moore, D., and Dierenfeld, E. S. 2005. Preferences among four species of local browse offered to colobus guereza kikuyuensis at the Central Park Zoo. Zoo Biology 24: 267-274.
Wasser, S. K., Davenport, B., Ramage, E. R., Hunt, K. E., Parker, M., Clarke, C., and Stenhouse, G. 2004. Scat detection dogs in wildlife research and management: application to grizzly and black bears in the Yellowhead Ecosystem, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 475-492.
Wasser, S. K., and Hunt, K. E. 2005. Noninvasive measures of reproductive function and disturbance in the barred owl, great horned owl, and northern spotted owl. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1046: 109-37.
Watanuki, Y., Ito, M., Deguchi, T., and Minobe, S. 2009. Climate-forced seasonal mismatch between the hatching of rhinoceros auklets and the availability of anchovy. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 393: 259-271.
Weishampel, J., Bagley, D., and Ehrhart, L. 2004. Earlier nesting by loggerhead sea turtles following sea surface warming. Global Change Biology 10: 1424-27.
Weisrock, D., and Janzen, F. 1999. Thermal and fitnessrelated consequences of nest location in painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta). Functional Ecology 13: 94-101.
Wildt, D., Comizzoli, P., Pukazhenthi, B., and Songsasen, N. 2010. Lessons from biodiversity-the value of nontraditional species to advance reproductive science, conservation, and human health. Molecular Reproduction and Development 77: 397-409.
Wildt, D. E., Rall, W. F., Critser, J. K., Monfort, S. L., and Seal, U. S. 1997. Genome resource banks: living collections for biodiversity conservation. Bioscience 47: 689-698.
Wobeser, G. 2003. Disease management in wildlife. Journal of Mountain Ecology 7 (suppl): 85-88.
Yates, C. J., Ladd, P. G., Coates, D. J., and McArthur, S. 2007. Heirarchies of cause: understanding rarity in an endemic shrubVerticordia staminosa ( Myrtaceae) with a highly restricted distribution. Australian Journal of Botany 55: 194-205.
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Ainley, D., and Hyrenbach, K. 2010. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabirdpopulation trends in the California current system (1985-2006). Progress in Oceanography 84: 242-254.
Aruji, Y., Tamura, K., Sugita, S., and Adachi, Y. 2004. Intestinal microflora in 45 crows in Ueno zoo and the in vitro susceptibilities of 29 Escherichia coli isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 66: 1283-1286.
Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E., and Rothery, P. 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432: 100-103.
Barth, J., Menge, B., Lubchenco, J., Chan, F., Bane, J., Kirincich, A., McManus, M., Nielsen, K., Pierce, S., and Washburn, L. 2007. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 3719-3724.
Barth, L., Angerbjörn, A., and Tannerfeldt, M. 2000. Are Norwegian lemmings Lemmus lemmus avoided by arctic Alopex lagopus or red foxes Vulpes vulpes? A feeding experiment. Wildlife Biology 6: 101-109.
Black, P., Cronin, J., Morrissy, C., and Westbury, H. 2001. Serological examination for evidence of infection with Hendra and Nipah viruses in Queensland piggeries. Australian Veterinary Journal 79: 424-426.
Bodetti, T., Jacobson, E., Wan, C., Hafner, L., Pospischil, A., Rose, K., and Timms, P. 2002. Molecular evidence to support the expansion of the hostrange of chlamydophila pneumoniae to Include reptiles as well as humans, horses, koalas and amphibians. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 25: 146-152.
Burgess, E., Keeley, T., and Lanyon, J. 2009. Determining reproductive status in wild dugongs. InAustralian Marine Sciences Association Conference.” Adelaide.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A., and Hyatt, A. 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health. Science 287: 443.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A., and Hyatt, A. 2001. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78: 103-116.
Folke, C. 2010. How resilient are ecosystems to global environmental change? Sustainability Science 5: 151-154.
Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., and Elmqvist, T. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35: 557-581.
Fontaine, M., Tolley, K., Michaux, J., Birkun, A., Ferreira, M., Jauniaux, T., Llavona, A., Ozturk, B., Ozturk, A., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Sequeira, M., Bouquegneau, J., and Baird, S. 2010. Genetic and historic evidence for climate-driven population fragmentation in a top cetacean predator: the harbour porpoises in European water. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences 277: 2829-2837.
France, K., and Duffy, J. 2006. Diversity and dispersal interactively affect predictability of ecosystem function. Nature 441: 1139-1143.
Gonzalez, A., and Chaneton, E. J. 2002. Heterotroph species extinction, abundance and biomass dynamics in an experimentally fragmented microecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 594-602.
Griffith, T. M., and Watson, M. A. 2006. Is evolution necessary for range expansion? Manipulating reproductive timing of a weedy annual transplanted beyond its range. American Naturalist 167: 153-64.
Hawkes, L., Broderick, A., Godfrey, M., and Godley, B. 2007. Investigating the potential impacts of climate change on a marine turtle population. Global Change Biology 13: 923-932.
Hewitt, G. M., and Nichols, R. A. 2005. Genetic and Evolutionary Impacts of Climate Change. In “Climate change and biodiversity”. T. E. Lovejoy, and L. Hannah (Eds). Yale University Press, New Haven and London 176-192.
Hilderbrand, G. V., Farley, S. D., Robbins, C. T., Hanley, T. A., Titus, K., and Servheen, C. 1996. Use of stable isotopes to determine diets of living and extinct bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 74: 2080-2088.
Hunt, K. E., Rolland, R. M., Kraus, S. D., and Wasser, S. K. 2006. Analysis of fecal glucocorticoids in the North Atlantic right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis). General and Comparative Endocrinology 148: 260-72.
Hunter, R. P., and Isaza, R. 2002. Zoological pharmacology: current status, issues, and potential. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54: 787-793.
Janzen, F. 1994. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91: 7487-7490.
Kock, R., Woodford, M., and Rossiter, P. 2010. Disease risks associated with the translocation of wildlife. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) 29: 329-350.
Marples, N., Quinlan, M., Thomas, R., and DJ, K. 2007. Deactivation of dietary wariness through experience of novel food. Behavioural Ecology 18: 803-810.
Mendes, S., Newton, J., Reid, R., Zuur, A., and Pierce, G. 2007. Teeth reveal sperm whale ontogenetic movements and trophic ecology through the profiling of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Oecologia 151: 605-615.
Midgley, G. F., Thuiller, W., and Higgins, S. I. 2005. Plant species migration as a key uncertainty in predicting future implacts of climate change on ecosystems: progress and challenges. In “Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world”. J. G. Canadell, D. E. Pataki, and P. L.F. (Eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 129-137.
Rapport, D. J., Böhm, G., Buckingham, D., Cairns, J. J., Costanza, R., JR, K., De Kruijf, H. A. M., Levins, R., McMichael, A. J., Nielsen, N. O., and Whitford, W. G. 2001. Ecosystem health: the concept, the ISEH, and the important tasks ahead. Ecosystem Health 5: 82-90.
Raymundoa, L., Halforda, A., Maypab, A., and Kerra, A. 2009. Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106: 17067-17070.
Reich, K., and Worthy, G. 2006. An isotopic assessment of the feeding habits of free-ranging manatees. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 322: 303-309.
Relman, D. A., Hamburg, M. A., Choffens, E. R., and Mack, A. 2008. Global climate change and extreme weather events - Understanding the contributions to infectious disease emergence. The National Academies Press, Washington DC.
Shultz, M., Piatt, J., Harding, A., Kettle, A., and Van Pelt, T. 2009. Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 393: 247-258.
Simmonds, M., and Isaac, S. 2007. The impacts of climate change on marine mammals: early signs of significant problems. Oryx 41: 19-26.
Songsasen, N., Rodden, M., Brown, J., and Wildt, D. 2006. Patterns of fecal gonadal hormone metabolites in the maned wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus). Theriogenology 66: 1743-50.
Steele, K., Linn, M., Schoepp, R., Komar, N., Geisbert, T., Manduca, R., Calle, P., Raphael, B., Clippinger, T., Larsen, T., Smith, J., Lanciotti, R., Panella, N., and McNamara, T. 2000. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Veterinary Pathology 37: 208-224.
Tovar, G., Cornejo, J., Macek, M., and Dierenfeld, E. S. 2009. Intake and Digestion of Horned Guan Oreophasis derbianus Diets Measured in Three Mexican Zoos. Zoo Biology 28: 319-330.
Tovar, T., Moore, D., and Dierenfeld, E. S. 2005. Preferences among four species of local browse offered to colobus guereza kikuyuensis at the Central Park Zoo. Zoo Biology 24: 267-274.
Wasser, S. K., Davenport, B., Ramage, E. R., Hunt, K. E., Parker, M., Clarke, C., and Stenhouse, G. 2004. Scat detection dogs in wildlife research and management: application to grizzly and black bears in the Yellowhead Ecosystem, Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 475-492.
Wasser, S. K., and Hunt, K. E. 2005. Noninvasive measures of reproductive function and disturbance in the barred owl, great horned owl, and northern spotted owl. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1046: 109-37.
Watanuki, Y., Ito, M., Deguchi, T., and Minobe, S. 2009. Climate-forced seasonal mismatch between the hatching of rhinoceros auklets and the availability of anchovy. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 393: 259-271.
Weishampel, J., Bagley, D., and Ehrhart, L. 2004. Earlier nesting by loggerhead sea turtles following sea surface warming. Global Change Biology 10: 1424-27.
Weisrock, D., and Janzen, F. 1999. Thermal and fitnessrelated consequences of nest location in painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta). Functional Ecology 13: 94-101.
Wildt, D., Comizzoli, P., Pukazhenthi, B., and Songsasen, N. 2010. Lessons from biodiversity-the value of nontraditional species to advance reproductive science, conservation, and human health. Molecular Reproduction and Development 77: 397-409.
Wildt, D. E., Rall, W. F., Critser, J. K., Monfort, S. L., and Seal, U. S. 1997. Genome resource banks: living collections for biodiversity conservation. Bioscience 47: 689-698.
Wobeser, G. 2003. Disease management in wildlife. Journal of Mountain Ecology 7 (suppl): 85-88.
Yates, C. J., Ladd, P. G., Coates, D. J., and McArthur, S. 2007. Heirarchies of cause: understanding rarity in an endemic shrubVerticordia staminosa ( Myrtaceae) with a highly restricted distribution. Australian Journal of Botany 55: 194-205.
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