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The Murray River has undergone considerable changes over the last 200 years and the floodplain and aquatic fauna have also changed dramatically. Introduced species, such as European carp (Cyprinus carpio), Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are the predominant species in most areas, however, freshwater turtles, despite extremely high nest predation from foxes, remain among the highest biomass of any vertebrate in the ecosystem. The secret is their resilience through adaptive changes of a life history pattern that is strongly density dependent, however, with ongoing habitat modification and human-induced climate change, they may be at the limit of this adaptive resilience which will potentially lead to significant declines in the coming years. This review assesses how climate change predictions will affect habitat in the Murray River over the next 100 years and identifies how turtles may respond to these changes. We also identify key areas where management can facilitate adaptive strategies of turtles to a rapidly changing environment.

Arendt, J.D. 1997 ‘Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: An integration across taxa’, The Quarterly Review of Biology, 72, 149-77.
Arendt, J.D., Wilson, D.S. and Stark, E. 2001 ‘Scale strength as a cost of rapid growth in sunfish’, Oikos, 93, 95-100.
Ballard, G., Fleming, P. and Humphrys, S. 2009, ‘Outcomes of a field trial of PAPP (Para-aminopropriophenone) for canid predator control’, in WA Ruscoe (ed.), 22nd Australasian Wildlife Management Society Conference, Napier, New Zealand.
Beare, S. and Heaney, A. 2002, ‘Climate change and water resources in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia’, in World Conference of Environmental and Resource Economists, Monterey.
Blanckenhorn, W.U. 2000 ‘The evolution of body size: What keeps organisms small?’, The Quarterly Review of Biology, 75, 385-407.
Bowkett, A.E. 2009 ‘Recent Captive-Breeding Proposals and the Return of the Ark Concept to Global Species Conservation’, Conservation Biology, 23, 773-6.
Bronikowski, A.M. 2008 ‘The evolution of aging phenotypes in snakes: A review and synthesis with new data’, Age, 30, 169-76.
Chessman, B.C. 1988 ‘Habitat preferences of fresh-water turtles in the Murray Valley, Victoria and New-South-Wales’, Wildlife Research, 15, 485-91.
Coltman, D.W. 2008 ‘Evolutionary rebound from selective harvesting’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 117-8.
Congdon, J.D., Nagle, R.D., Kinney, O.M. and van Loben Sels, R.C. 2001 ‘Hypotheses of aging in a long-lived vertebrate, Blanding's turtle ( Emydoidea blandingii)’, Experimental Gerontology, 36, 813-27.
Congdon, J.D., Nagle, R.D., Kinney, O.M., van Loben Sels, R.C., Quinter, T. and Tinkle, D.W. 2003 ‘Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta)’, Experimental Gerontology, 38, 765-72.
CSIRO and Australian Bureau of Meteorology 2007, Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007, New South Wales Government and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra.
Dawson, A., Hinsley, S.A., Ferns, P.N., Bonser, R.H.C. and Eccleston, L. 2000 ‘Rate of moult affects feather quality: A mechanism linking current reproductive effort to future survival’, Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 267, 2093-8.
Dodd, C.K. 2002, North American box turtles: A natural history, vol. 6, Animal Natural History Series, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Droge, W. 2002 ‘Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function’, Physiological Reviews, 82, 47-95.
Ewert, M.A. and Nelson, C.E. 1991 ‘Sex determination in turtles: Diverse patterns and some possible adaptive values’, Copeia, 1991, 50-69.
Ferguson, M.W.J. and Joanen, T. 1983 ‘Temperature-dependent sex determination in Alligator mississippiensis’, Journal of Zoology, 200, 143-77.
Fordham, D.A., Georges, A. and Brook, B.W. 2007 ‘Demographic response of snake-necked turtles correlates with indigenous harvest and feral pig predation in tropical northern Australia’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 1231-43.
Galbraith, D.A., Bishop, C.A., Brooks, R.J., Simser, W.L. and Lampman, K.P. 1988 ‘Factors affecting the density of populations of common snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina serpentina)’, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 1233-40.
Gibbons, J.W. and Semlitsch, R.D. 1982 ‘Survivorship and longevity of a long-lived vertebrate species: How long do turtles live?’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 51, 523-7.
Girondot, M. and Garcia, J. 1999, ‘Senescence and longevity in turtles: What telomeres tell us’, in R Guyétant & C Miaud (eds), 9th Extraordinary Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Université de Savoie. Le Bourget du Lac, France, pp. 133-7.
Gotthard, K. 2000 ‘Increased risk of predation as a cost of high growth rate: an experimental test in a butterfly’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 896-902.
Goyder Institute for water research 2011, Environmental Water, viewed 21/05/2011, http://goyderinstitute.org/programs/environment/index.php.
Hall, M.E., Nasir, L., Daunt, F., Gault, E.A., Croxall, J.P., Wanless, S. and Monaghan, P. 2004 ‘Telomere loss in relation to age and early environment in long-lived birds’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271, 1571-6.
Hatase, H., Sudo, R., Watanabe, K.K., Kasugai, T., Saito, T., Okamoto, H., Uchida, I. and Tsukamoto, K. 2008 ‘Shorter telomere length with age in the loggerhead turtle: A new hope for live sea turtle age estimation’, Genes and Genetic Systems, 83, 423-6.
Haussmann, M.F., Winkler, D.W. and Vleck, C.M. 2005 ‘Longer telomeres associated with higher survival in birds’, Biology Letters, 1, 212-4.
Houben, J.M.J., Moonen, H.J.J., van Schooten, F.J. and Hageman, G.J. 2008 ‘Telomere length assessment: Biomarker of chronic oxidative stress?’, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44, 235-46.
Hulin, V., Delmas, V., Girondot, M., Godfrey, M.H. and Guillon, J.-M. 2009 ‘Temperature-dependent sex determination and global change: are some species at greater risk?’, Oecologia, 160, 493-506.
Iverson, J.B. 1982 ‘Biomass in turtle populations: A neglected subject’, Oecologia, 55, 69-76.
Janzen, F.J. 1994 ‘Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 7487-90.
Khan, S. 2008 ‘Managing climate risks in Australia: options for water policy and irrigation management’, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 265-73.
Kingsford, R.T. 2000 ‘Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia’, Austral Ecology, 25, 109-27.
Kingsford, R.T., Walker, K.F., Lester, R.E., Young, W.J., Fairweather, P.G., Sammut, J. and Geddes, M.C. 2011 ‘A ramsar wetland in crisis the coorong, lower lakes and murray mouth, Australia’, Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 255-65.
Marks, C.A. and Wilson, R. 2005 ‘Predicting mammalian target-specificity of the M-44 ejector in south-eastern Australia’, Wildlife Research, 32, 151-6.
Metcalfe, N.B. and Monaghan, P. 2003 ‘Growth versus lifespan: perspectives from evolutionary ecology’, Experimental Gerontology, 38, 935-40.
Michael, D. and Lindenmayer, D. 2010, Reptiles of the NSW Murray catchment : a guide to their identification, ecology and conservation, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.
Miller, D., Summers, J. and Silber, S. 2004 ‘Environmental versus genetic sex determination: a possible factor in dinosaur extinction?’, Fertility and Sterility, 81, 954-64.
Monaghan, P. and Haussmann, M.F. 2006 ‘Do telomere dynamics link lifestyle and lifespan?’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 47-53.
Morjan, C.L. 2003 ‘Variation in nesting patterns affecting nest temperatures in two populations of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination’, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53, 254-61.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2007, ‘Native Fish Strategy’, in M Lintermans (ed.), Proceedings of the Murray-Darling Basin Commission Native Fish Strategy Forum 2007.
Near, T.J., Meylan, P.A. and Shaffer, H.B. 2005 ‘Assessing concordance of fossil calibration points in molecular clock studies: An example using turtles’, The American Naturalist, 165, 137-46.
Quiggin, J. 2001 ‘Environmental economics and the Murray-Darling river system’, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 45, 67-94.
Robert, K.A. and Bronikowski, A.M. 2010 ‘Evolution of senescence in nature: physiological evolution in populations of garter snake with divergent life histories’, The American Naturalist, 175, 147-59.
Robert, K.A., Brunet-Rossinni, A. and Bronikowski, A.M. 2007 ‘Testing the ‘free radical theory of aging’ hypothesis: physiological differences in long-lived and short-lived colubrid snakes’, Aging Cell, 6, 395-404.
Schwanz, L., Warner, D.A., McGaugh, S., Terlizzi, R.D. and Bronikowski, A. 2011 ‘State-dependent physiological maintenance in a long-lived ectotherm, the painted turtle ( Chrysemys picta)’, The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 88-97.
Shine, R. and Iverson, J.B. 1995 ‘Patterns of survival, growth and maturation in turtles’, Oikos, 72, 343-8.
Spencer, R.-J. 2002a ‘Experimentally testing nest site selection: Fitness trade-offs and predation risk in turtles’, Ecology, 83, 2136-44.
Spencer, R.-J. 2002b ‘Growth patterns of two widely distributed freshwater turtles and a comparison of common methods used to estimate age’, Australian Journal of Zoology, 50, 477-90.
Spencer, R.-J. and Janzen, F.J. 2010 ‘Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms’, Biological Conservation, 143, 1951-9.
Spencer, R.-J., Janzen, F.J. and Thompson, M.B. 2006 ‘Counterintuitive density-dependent growth in a long-lived vertebrate after removal of nest predators’, Ecology, 87, 3109-18.
Spencer, R.-J. and Thompson, M.B. 2005 ‘Experimental analysis of the impact of foxes on freshwater turtle populations’, Conservation Biology, 19, 845-54.
Spencer, R.-J., Thompson, M.B. and Hume, I.D. 1998 ‘The diet and digestive energetics of an Australian short-necked turtle, Emydura macquarii’, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 121, 341-9.
Swain, D.P., Sinclair, A.F. and Mark Hanson, J. 2007 ‘Evolutionary response to size-selective mortality in an exploited fish population’, Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 274, 1015-22.
Thompson, M.B. 1982 ‘A marking system for tortoises in use in South Australia’, South Australian Naturalist, 57, 33-4.
Thompson, M.B. 1983 ‘Populations of the Murray River tortoise, Emydura (Chelodina): the effect of egg predation by the red fox, Vulpes vulpes’, Australian Wildlife Research, 10, 363-71.
Thompson, M.B. 1986, River Murray Wetlands. Their Characteristics, Significance and Management., South Australian Department of Environment and Planning, Adelaide.
Thompson, M.B. 1993, ‘Hypothetical considerations of the biomass of chelid tortoises in the River Murray and the possible influences of predation by introduced fox’, in D Lunney & D Ayes (eds), Herpetology in Australia, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp. 219-24.
Turtle Conservation Fund 2002, A Global Action Plan for Conservation of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. Strategy and Funding Prospectus 2002-2007, Conservation International and Chelonian Research Foundation, Washington, DC.
Wei, Y., Langford, J., Willett, I.R., Barlow, S. and Lyle, C. 2011 ‘Is irrigated agriculture in the Murray Darling Basin well prepared to deal with reductions in water availability?’, Global Environmental Change, In Press, Corrected Proof.
Weinert, B.T. and Timiras, P.S. 2003 ‘Invited review: Theories of aging’, Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 1706-16.
Wilson, C. and Tisdell, C. 2001 ‘Sea turtles as a non-consumptive tourism resource especially in Australia’, Tourism Management, 22, 279-88.
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References

Arendt, J.D. 1997 ‘Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: An integration across taxa’, The Quarterly Review of Biology, 72, 149-77.
Arendt, J.D., Wilson, D.S. and Stark, E. 2001 ‘Scale strength as a cost of rapid growth in sunfish’, Oikos, 93, 95-100.
Ballard, G., Fleming, P. and Humphrys, S. 2009, ‘Outcomes of a field trial of PAPP (Para-aminopropriophenone) for canid predator control’, in WA Ruscoe (ed.), 22nd Australasian Wildlife Management Society Conference, Napier, New Zealand.
Beare, S. and Heaney, A. 2002, ‘Climate change and water resources in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia’, in World Conference of Environmental and Resource Economists, Monterey.
Blanckenhorn, W.U. 2000 ‘The evolution of body size: What keeps organisms small?’, The Quarterly Review of Biology, 75, 385-407.
Bowkett, A.E. 2009 ‘Recent Captive-Breeding Proposals and the Return of the Ark Concept to Global Species Conservation’, Conservation Biology, 23, 773-6.
Bronikowski, A.M. 2008 ‘The evolution of aging phenotypes in snakes: A review and synthesis with new data’, Age, 30, 169-76.
Chessman, B.C. 1988 ‘Habitat preferences of fresh-water turtles in the Murray Valley, Victoria and New-South-Wales’, Wildlife Research, 15, 485-91.
Coltman, D.W. 2008 ‘Evolutionary rebound from selective harvesting’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 117-8.
Congdon, J.D., Nagle, R.D., Kinney, O.M. and van Loben Sels, R.C. 2001 ‘Hypotheses of aging in a long-lived vertebrate, Blanding's turtle ( Emydoidea blandingii)’, Experimental Gerontology, 36, 813-27.
Congdon, J.D., Nagle, R.D., Kinney, O.M., van Loben Sels, R.C., Quinter, T. and Tinkle, D.W. 2003 ‘Testing hypotheses of aging in long-lived painted turtles ( Chrysemys picta)’, Experimental Gerontology, 38, 765-72.
CSIRO and Australian Bureau of Meteorology 2007, Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007, New South Wales Government and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra.
Dawson, A., Hinsley, S.A., Ferns, P.N., Bonser, R.H.C. and Eccleston, L. 2000 ‘Rate of moult affects feather quality: A mechanism linking current reproductive effort to future survival’, Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 267, 2093-8.
Dodd, C.K. 2002, North American box turtles: A natural history, vol. 6, Animal Natural History Series, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Droge, W. 2002 ‘Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function’, Physiological Reviews, 82, 47-95.
Ewert, M.A. and Nelson, C.E. 1991 ‘Sex determination in turtles: Diverse patterns and some possible adaptive values’, Copeia, 1991, 50-69.
Ferguson, M.W.J. and Joanen, T. 1983 ‘Temperature-dependent sex determination in Alligator mississippiensis’, Journal of Zoology, 200, 143-77.
Fordham, D.A., Georges, A. and Brook, B.W. 2007 ‘Demographic response of snake-necked turtles correlates with indigenous harvest and feral pig predation in tropical northern Australia’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 76, 1231-43.
Galbraith, D.A., Bishop, C.A., Brooks, R.J., Simser, W.L. and Lampman, K.P. 1988 ‘Factors affecting the density of populations of common snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina serpentina)’, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 1233-40.
Gibbons, J.W. and Semlitsch, R.D. 1982 ‘Survivorship and longevity of a long-lived vertebrate species: How long do turtles live?’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 51, 523-7.
Girondot, M. and Garcia, J. 1999, ‘Senescence and longevity in turtles: What telomeres tell us’, in R Guyétant & C Miaud (eds), 9th Extraordinary Meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Université de Savoie. Le Bourget du Lac, France, pp. 133-7.
Gotthard, K. 2000 ‘Increased risk of predation as a cost of high growth rate: an experimental test in a butterfly’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 896-902.
Goyder Institute for water research 2011, Environmental Water, viewed 21/05/2011, http://goyderinstitute.org/programs/environment/index.php.
Hall, M.E., Nasir, L., Daunt, F., Gault, E.A., Croxall, J.P., Wanless, S. and Monaghan, P. 2004 ‘Telomere loss in relation to age and early environment in long-lived birds’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271, 1571-6.
Hatase, H., Sudo, R., Watanabe, K.K., Kasugai, T., Saito, T., Okamoto, H., Uchida, I. and Tsukamoto, K. 2008 ‘Shorter telomere length with age in the loggerhead turtle: A new hope for live sea turtle age estimation’, Genes and Genetic Systems, 83, 423-6.
Haussmann, M.F., Winkler, D.W. and Vleck, C.M. 2005 ‘Longer telomeres associated with higher survival in birds’, Biology Letters, 1, 212-4.
Houben, J.M.J., Moonen, H.J.J., van Schooten, F.J. and Hageman, G.J. 2008 ‘Telomere length assessment: Biomarker of chronic oxidative stress?’, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44, 235-46.
Hulin, V., Delmas, V., Girondot, M., Godfrey, M.H. and Guillon, J.-M. 2009 ‘Temperature-dependent sex determination and global change: are some species at greater risk?’, Oecologia, 160, 493-506.
Iverson, J.B. 1982 ‘Biomass in turtle populations: A neglected subject’, Oecologia, 55, 69-76.
Janzen, F.J. 1994 ‘Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 7487-90.
Khan, S. 2008 ‘Managing climate risks in Australia: options for water policy and irrigation management’, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 265-73.
Kingsford, R.T. 2000 ‘Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia’, Austral Ecology, 25, 109-27.
Kingsford, R.T., Walker, K.F., Lester, R.E., Young, W.J., Fairweather, P.G., Sammut, J. and Geddes, M.C. 2011 ‘A ramsar wetland in crisis the coorong, lower lakes and murray mouth, Australia’, Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 255-65.
Marks, C.A. and Wilson, R. 2005 ‘Predicting mammalian target-specificity of the M-44 ejector in south-eastern Australia’, Wildlife Research, 32, 151-6.
Metcalfe, N.B. and Monaghan, P. 2003 ‘Growth versus lifespan: perspectives from evolutionary ecology’, Experimental Gerontology, 38, 935-40.
Michael, D. and Lindenmayer, D. 2010, Reptiles of the NSW Murray catchment : a guide to their identification, ecology and conservation, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Vic.
Miller, D., Summers, J. and Silber, S. 2004 ‘Environmental versus genetic sex determination: a possible factor in dinosaur extinction?’, Fertility and Sterility, 81, 954-64.
Monaghan, P. and Haussmann, M.F. 2006 ‘Do telomere dynamics link lifestyle and lifespan?’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 47-53.
Morjan, C.L. 2003 ‘Variation in nesting patterns affecting nest temperatures in two populations of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination’, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53, 254-61.
Murray-Darling Basin Commission 2007, ‘Native Fish Strategy’, in M Lintermans (ed.), Proceedings of the Murray-Darling Basin Commission Native Fish Strategy Forum 2007.
Near, T.J., Meylan, P.A. and Shaffer, H.B. 2005 ‘Assessing concordance of fossil calibration points in molecular clock studies: An example using turtles’, The American Naturalist, 165, 137-46.
Quiggin, J. 2001 ‘Environmental economics and the Murray-Darling river system’, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 45, 67-94.
Robert, K.A. and Bronikowski, A.M. 2010 ‘Evolution of senescence in nature: physiological evolution in populations of garter snake with divergent life histories’, The American Naturalist, 175, 147-59.
Robert, K.A., Brunet-Rossinni, A. and Bronikowski, A.M. 2007 ‘Testing the ‘free radical theory of aging’ hypothesis: physiological differences in long-lived and short-lived colubrid snakes’, Aging Cell, 6, 395-404.
Schwanz, L., Warner, D.A., McGaugh, S., Terlizzi, R.D. and Bronikowski, A. 2011 ‘State-dependent physiological maintenance in a long-lived ectotherm, the painted turtle ( Chrysemys picta)’, The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 88-97.
Shine, R. and Iverson, J.B. 1995 ‘Patterns of survival, growth and maturation in turtles’, Oikos, 72, 343-8.
Spencer, R.-J. 2002a ‘Experimentally testing nest site selection: Fitness trade-offs and predation risk in turtles’, Ecology, 83, 2136-44.
Spencer, R.-J. 2002b ‘Growth patterns of two widely distributed freshwater turtles and a comparison of common methods used to estimate age’, Australian Journal of Zoology, 50, 477-90.
Spencer, R.-J. and Janzen, F.J. 2010 ‘Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms’, Biological Conservation, 143, 1951-9.
Spencer, R.-J., Janzen, F.J. and Thompson, M.B. 2006 ‘Counterintuitive density-dependent growth in a long-lived vertebrate after removal of nest predators’, Ecology, 87, 3109-18.
Spencer, R.-J. and Thompson, M.B. 2005 ‘Experimental analysis of the impact of foxes on freshwater turtle populations’, Conservation Biology, 19, 845-54.
Spencer, R.-J., Thompson, M.B. and Hume, I.D. 1998 ‘The diet and digestive energetics of an Australian short-necked turtle, Emydura macquarii’, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 121, 341-9.
Swain, D.P., Sinclair, A.F. and Mark Hanson, J. 2007 ‘Evolutionary response to size-selective mortality in an exploited fish population’, Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 274, 1015-22.
Thompson, M.B. 1982 ‘A marking system for tortoises in use in South Australia’, South Australian Naturalist, 57, 33-4.
Thompson, M.B. 1983 ‘Populations of the Murray River tortoise, Emydura (Chelodina): the effect of egg predation by the red fox, Vulpes vulpes’, Australian Wildlife Research, 10, 363-71.
Thompson, M.B. 1986, River Murray Wetlands. Their Characteristics, Significance and Management., South Australian Department of Environment and Planning, Adelaide.
Thompson, M.B. 1993, ‘Hypothetical considerations of the biomass of chelid tortoises in the River Murray and the possible influences of predation by introduced fox’, in D Lunney & D Ayes (eds), Herpetology in Australia, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp. 219-24.
Turtle Conservation Fund 2002, A Global Action Plan for Conservation of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles. Strategy and Funding Prospectus 2002-2007, Conservation International and Chelonian Research Foundation, Washington, DC.
Wei, Y., Langford, J., Willett, I.R., Barlow, S. and Lyle, C. 2011 ‘Is irrigated agriculture in the Murray Darling Basin well prepared to deal with reductions in water availability?’, Global Environmental Change, In Press, Corrected Proof.
Weinert, B.T. and Timiras, P.S. 2003 ‘Invited review: Theories of aging’, Journal of Applied Physiology, 95, 1706-16.
Wilson, C. and Tisdell, C. 2001 ‘Sea turtles as a non-consumptive tourism resource especially in Australia’, Tourism Management, 22, 279-88.
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