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Climate change represents a serious threat to Vietnam, to its protected area system and to the preservation of its biodiversity. The country is recognised as being one of those that will be most effected by climate change. It also contains significant biological diversity (10-16% of the world's species) and the second highest number of globally threatened species in mainland South-East Asia. Due to sea level rise alone, a significant amount of Vietnam's protected areas will be directly impacted suggesting a need to review the long term comprehensiveness of the protected area network. A 1m rise will put 22% of Nature Reserves, 39% of National Parks and 50% of wetlands at very high risk of inundation. In response to this and the additive effect of extreme events and other aspects of climate change, species will need to adapt, move or they will die out locally. Movement of species to track changing conditions and habitat may be possible in mountainous areas, but there would be significant barriers to north-south migration in the narrow, densely populated coastal corridor. However, the most pressing threats to Vietnam's wildlife are occurring now, and are hunting, the illegal wildlife trade, illegal logging and infrastructure development. Conservation of Vietnam's biodiversity requires international support to address both the existing challenges as well as those predicted for the future.

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Anonymous 1996. Red Data Book of Vietnam, Volume 2 (Plants). Science and Technical Publishing, Hanoi.
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Vietnam Environment Monitor 2005: Biodiversity. Joint publication of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), the World Bank and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).
World Bank 2004. Going, Going, Gone… The Illegal Trade in Wildlife in East and Southeast Asia.
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WWF 2005. List of Global 200 Ecoregions. http://www.panda.org
WWF 2007. Implementing Landscape Conservation for Ecoregion Conservation in Vietnam.
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References

Anonymous 1992. Red Data Book of Vietnam, Volume 1 (Animals). Science and Technical Publishing, Hanoi.
Anonymous 1996. Red Data Book of Vietnam, Volume 2 (Plants). Science and Technical Publishing, Hanoi.
Anonymous 2000. Red Data Book of Vietnam. Animals. Science and Technical Publishing, Hanoi.
Baltzer M.C., Nguyen Thi Dao and Shore R.G. (eds). 2001. Towards A Vision for Biodiversity Conservation in the Forests of the Lower Mekong Ecoregion Complex. WWF Indochina/WWF US, Hanoi and Washington
Booth, T. H., Nghia N. H., Kirschbaum M. U. F., Hackett C. and Jovanovic T. 1999. Assessing possible impacts of climate change on species important for forestry in Vietnam. Climatic Change 41:109-126.
Carew-Reid, J. 2008. Rapid Assessment of the Extent and Impact of Sea Level Rise in Viet Nam, Climate Change Discussion Paper 1, ICEM - International Centre for Environmental Management, Brisbane, Australia.
Chaudhry, P. and Ruysschaert, G. 2007. Climate Change and Human Development
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada.
Dasgupta, S., Laplante, B., Meisner, C., Wheeler, D. and Yan, J. 2007. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4136, February 2007.
Davis, S. D., Heywood, V. H. and Hamilton, A. C. (eds). 1995. Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation. Volume 2: Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. Cambridge, U.K.: IUCN Publications Unit.
East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership. www.eaaflyway.net/
Fortier, F. 2010. Taking a climate chance: A procedural critique of Vietnam's climate change strategy. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 51:229-247.
Hodas, D. 2008. Biodiversity and Climate Change Laws: A Failure to Communicate? Pp 383-399 in Biodiversity Conservation, Law and Livelihoods: Bridging the North-South Divide. Edited by M. Jeffery, J. Firestone, and K. Bubna-Litic. IUCN Academy of Environmental Law Research Studies. Cambridge University Press.
IPCC 2007. Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability.
ISPoNRE 2009. Vietnam assessment report on climate change (VARCC). Institute of strategy and policy on natural resources and environment. Institute for Strategy and Policy of Natural Resources and the Environment (ISPoNRE) / UNEP, Hanoi, Vietnam.
IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species.
Loarie, S. R., Duffy, P B., Hamilton, H. A., Gregory P., Field, C B. and Ackerly, D. D. 2009. The velocity of climate change. Nature 462: 1052-1055.
MARD 2008. Natural Disaster Management Plan to Mitigate Adverse Impacts of Climate Change. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Hanoi, Vietnam.
MONRE 2009. Climate change: Sea level rise scenarios for Vietnam. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Hanoi, Vietnam.
MONRE 2008. The National Target Programme to Respond to Climate Change. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Hanoi, Vietnam.
Nguyen Huu Ninh, Luong Quang Huy, Le Thi Tuyet, Cao Thi Phuong Ly, Nguyen To Uyen. 2010. The role of biodiversity in climate change mitigation in Vietnam: Red River estuary - Balat case study. Center for Environment Research, Education and Development. Hanoi, Vietnam
Nguyen Quang Truong 2006. Herpetological collaboration in Vietnam. Pp. 233-240 in Herpetologia Bonnensis II. Edited by M. Vences, J. Köhler, T. Ziegler, W. Böhme. Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica.; 2006.
Tordoff, A. W. (ed.) 2002. Directory of Important Bird Areas in Vietnam: Key Sites for Conservation. BirdLife International in Indochina and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources. Hanoi, Vietnam.
TRAFFIC 2008. “What's Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR and Vietnam”. East Asia and Pacific Region Sustainable Development Discussion Papers. East Asia and Pacific Region Sustainable Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/cop-10/official/cop-10-27-en.doc).
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1992. United Nations.
Van Dijk, P. P., Tordoff, A. W., Fellowes, J., Lau, M. and Jinshuang, M. 2004. Indo-Burma. Pp 323-330 in Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Edited by R. A. Mittermeier, P. Robles Gil, M. Hoffmann, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C. G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoreaux and G. A. B da Fonseca. University of Chicago Press.
Vietnam Environment Monitor 2005: Biodiversity. Joint publication of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE), the World Bank and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).
World Bank 2004. Going, Going, Gone… The Illegal Trade in Wildlife in East and Southeast Asia.
World Bank 2010a. World Development Report - Development and Climate Change.
World Bank 2010b. World Development Indicators. http://datafinder.worldbank.org/about-world-development-indicators.
WWF 2005. List of Global 200 Ecoregions. http://www.panda.org
WWF 2007. Implementing Landscape Conservation for Ecoregion Conservation in Vietnam.
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