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Koalas are prime candidates to study the impact of climate change because they are specialised folivores and lack any ready means of avoiding weather extremes. Koalas are widely but patchily distributed throughout eastern mainland Australia. Efforts to protect them from landscape-scale threats have been identified in the NSW 2008 Koala Recovery Plan, the 2010 NSW Priorities for biodiversity adaptation to climate change and the 2009-14 National Koala Conservation and Management Strategy. The statements in the formal strategies and recovery plans identify a number of problems, two of which we address in this paper. The first problem is that of extreme weather and the second is the change of leaf quality from rising levels of carbon dioxide. This paper capitalises on our field study in Gunnedah, in north-west NSW, which examined a 1990s success story where the local koala population benefited from the plantings of trees and shrubs to hold down the water table in the face of a rising salinity crisis. In late 2009, heatwaves killed an estimated 25% of the Gunnedah koala population. This foreshadows how increased climate variability will impact on koala populations. In 2008, chlamydiosis - a disease causing infertility - had been established as being present in the Gunnedah population. The likely spread of this disease throughout the Gunnedah koala population presents a further challenge to wildlife managers in the context of a changing climate. The potential indirect effects of global climate change - how increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may reduce the availability of the nutrients in Eucalyptus foliage to koalas - is described and the implication drawn that elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may threaten some populations of free-ranging koalas. The Liverpool Plains are among Australia's prime agricultural landscapes where the conservation of biodiversity occurs largely on private land. Consequently, we need to integrate climate change adaptation with rural land management and restoration practices. The research demonstrates the contribution from the cross-disciplinary links. It adds to our ability to monitor sustainable native fauna populations and threatened species by distinguishing among the multiple causes of population change, and it can also be viewed as a pilot demonstrating the value of longitudinal wild population disease monitoring.

Adams-Hosking, C., Grantham, H. S., Rhodes, J. R., McAlpine, C. and Moss, P. T. 2011. Modelling climatechange-induced shifts in the distribution of the koala. Wildlife Research 38: 122-130.
Andrew, R.L., Wallis, I.R., Harwood, C.E. and Foley, W.J. 2010. Genetic and environmental contributions to variation and population divergence in a broad-spectrum foliar defence of Eucalyptus tricarpa.Annals of Botany 105: 707-717.
Barton, C. V. M., Ellsworth, D. S., Medlyn, B. E., Duursma, R. A., Tissue, D. T., Adams, M. A., Eamus, D., Conroy, J. P., McMurtrie, R. E., Parsby, J. and Linder, S. 2010. Wholetree chambers for elevated atmospheric CO2 experimentation and tree scale flux measurements in south-eastern Australia: The Hawkesbury Forest Experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 941-951.
Braithwaite, L.W., Turner, J. and Kelly, J. 1984. Studies of the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, New South Wales. III. Relationships between fauna1 densities, eucalypt occurrence and foliage nutrients and soil parent materials. Australian Wildlife Research 11:41-48.
Braithwaite, L. W., 2004. Do current forestry practices threaten forest fauna? A perspective. Pp 513-536. In Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Canfield, P.J. 1989. A survey of urinary tract disease in New South Wales koalas. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(4): 103-106.
Canfield, P.J., Love, D.N., Mearns, G. and Farram, E. 1991. Chlamydial infection in a colony of captive koalas. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68(5): 167-169.
Cary, G. J. 2002. Importance of a changing climate for fire regimes in Australia. Pp 26-46 in Flammable Australia. The fire regimes and biodiversity of a continent, edited by R.A. Bradstock, J.E. Williams and M.A. Gill. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Commonwealth of Australia [Hansard] 2011. Status, health and sustainability of Australia's koala population. Senate Environment and Communications Committee, 3 May 2011.
Cork S.J. and Catling P.C. 1996. Modelling distributions of arboreal and ground-dwelling mammals in relation to climate, nutrients, plant chemical defences and vegetation structure in the eucalypt forests of southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85:163-175.
Cunningham, A.A. and Daszak, P. 1998. Extinction of a species of land snail due to infection with a microsporidian parasite. Conservation Biology, 12(5): 1139-1141.
Crowther, M. S., McAlpine, C. A., Lunney, D., Shannon, I. and Bryant, J. V. 2009. Using broad-scale community survey data to compare species conservation strategies across regions: A case study of the Koala in a set of adjacent ‘catchments’. Ecological Restoration and Management 10 (S1): 88-96.
de Castro, F. and Bolker, B. 2005. Mechanisms of diseaseinduced extinction. Ecology Letters, 8(1): 117-126.
DECC 2008. Recovery Plan for the Koala (Phascolartos cinereus). Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW. DECC Goulburn St, Sydney, NSW Australia.
DECCW 2010a. Climate Change Impacts New England/North West NSW. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/climatechange/understanding.htm
DECCW 2010b. NSW Priorities for biodiversity adaptation to climate change. State of NSW and Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
DeGabriel, J. L., Wallis, I. R., Moore, B. D. and Foley, W. J. 2008. A simple, integrative assay to quantify nutritional quality of browses for herbivores. Oecologia 156: 107-116
DeGabriel, J. L., Moore, B. D., Foley, W. J. and Johnson, C. N. 2009. The effects of plant defensive chemistry on nutrient availability predict reproductive success in a mammal. Ecology 90: 711-719.
Ellis, W.A.H., Girjes, A.A., Carrick, F.N. and Melzer, A. 1993. Chlamydial infection in koalas under relatively little alienation pressure. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 427-428.
Ellis, W.A.H., Melzer, A., Green, B., Newgrain, K., Hindell, M.A. and Carrick, F.N. 1995. Seasonal variation in water flux, field metabolic rate and food consumption of free-ranging koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Australian Journal of Zoology 43:59-68.
Ellis, W. A. H., Melzer, A. and Bercovitch, F. B. 2009. Spatiotemporal dynamics of habitat use by koalas: the checkerboard model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1181-1188.
Ellis, W.A.H, Melzer, A., Clifton, I. D. and Carrick, F. 2010. Climate change and the koala Phascolarctos cinereus: water and energy. In theme edition of Australian Zoologist “Ecology meets Physiology”, a Gordon Grigg festschrift, edited by L. Beard, D. Lunney, H. McCallum and C. Franklin. Australian Zoologist 35: 369-377.
Gleadow, R.M., Foley, W.J. and Woodrow, I.E. 1998. Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Plant Cell and Environment 21:12-22.
Gordon, G., Brown, A. S. and Pulsford, T. 1988. A koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss) population crash during drought and heatwave conditions in south-western Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 451-461.
Gordon, G., McGreevy, D.G. and Lawrie, B.C. 1990. Koala populations in Queensland: major limiting factors. Pp. 85-95 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A.K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia.
Handasyde, K. 1986. Factors affecting reproduction in the female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). PhD thesis, Monash University, Melbourne.
Hasson, A. E. A., Mills, G. A., Timbal, B. and Walsh, K. 2009. Assessing the impact of climate change on extreme fire weather events over southeastern Australia. Climate Research 39: 159-172.
Higgins, D.P., Hemsley, S. and Canfield, P.J. 2005. Association of uterine and salpingeal fibrosis with chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigen-specific antibodies in chlamydia-infected koalas. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(5): 632-639.
Hughes, L., Cawsey, E. M. and Westoby, M. 1996. Climatic Range Sizes of Eucalyptus species in Relation to Future Climate Change. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 5: 23-29.
Jackson, M., White, N., Giffard, P. and Timms, P. 1999. Epizootiology of Chlamydia infections in two free-range koala populations. Veterinary Microbiology, 65(4): 255-264.
Kearney, M., Wintle, B. and Porter, W. P. 2010. Correlative and mechanistic models of species distribution provide congruent forecasts under climate change. Conservation Letters 3:203-213.
Krockenberger, A. 2003. Meeting the energy demands of reproduction in female koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus: evidence for energetic compensation. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 173:531-540.
Lawler, I.R., Foley, W.J., Woodrow, I. E. and Cork, S.J. 1997. The effects of elevated CO2 atmospheres on the nutritional quality of Eucalyptus foliage and its interaction with soil nutrient and light availability. Oecologia 109: 59-68.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S.M., Mahon, P.S. and Matthews, A. 2004. Post-fire survival and reproduction of rehabilitated and unburnt koalas. Biological Conservation 120: 567-575.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S., O'Neill, L. E., Matthews, A. and Rhodes, J. 2007. The impact of fire and dogs on koalas at Port Stephens, New South Wales, using population viability analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 189-201.
Lunney, D., Crowther, M. S., Shannon, I. and Bryant, J. V. 2009. Combining a map-based public survey with an estimation of site occupancy to determine the recent and changing distribution of the koala in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 36: 262-273.
Maloiy, G. M. O., Kanui, T. I., Towett, P. K., Wambugu, S.N., Miaron, J. O. and Wanyoike M. M. 2008. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 151:185-190.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999. The koala: natural history, conservation and management. 2nd edn, University of NSW Press, Kensington, NSW.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Gresser, S. and Maitz, W. 2007. Tree use by koalas Phascolarctos cinereus after fire in remnant coastal forest. Wildlife Research 34: 84-93.
McAlpine, C. A., Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., Bowen, M. E., Lunney, D., Mitchell, D. L., Pullar, D.V. and Possingham, H. P. 2006. The importance of forest area and configuration relative to local habitat factors for conserving forest mammals: a case study of koalas in Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 132: 153-165.
McLean, N. 2003. Ecology and management of overabundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
Milthorpe, P. L and Cunninham, G. M. 2005. The Kurrajong. Primefact 16. NSW DPI. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/44981/The_kurrajong_-_Primefact_16-final.pdf
Moore, B. D., Wallis, I. R., Marsh, K. J. and Foley W. J. 2004. The role of nutrition in the conservation of the marsupial folivores of eucalypt forests. Pp 549-575. In Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW Australia.
Pereira, A. M. F., Baccari, F., Titto, E. A. L., Almeida, J. A. A. 2008. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds. International Journal of Biometeorology 52:199-208.
Reed, P. and Lunney, D. 1990. Habitat loss: the key problem for the long-term survival of koalas in NSW. Pp 9-31 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW, edited by D. Lunney, C.A. Urquhart and P. Reed. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville, NSW.
Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., McAlpine, C. A., de Jong, C., Bowen, M. E., Mitchell, D. L., Lunney, D. and Possingham, H. P. 2008. Regional variation in habitat-occupancy thresholds: a warning for conservation planning. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 549-557.
Rhodes, J. R., Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and McAlpine, C. A. 2011. The consequences of using indirect signs that decay to determine species' occupancy. Ecography 34:141-150.
Schloegel, L., Hero, J.-M., Berger, L., Speare, R., McDonald, K. and Daszak, P. 2006. The decline of the sharp-snouted day frog (Taudactylus acutirostris): the first documented case of extinction by infection in a free-ranging wildlife species? EcoHealth, 3:35-40.
Seabrook, L., McApline, C., Baxter, G., Rhodes, J., Bradley, A. and Lunney, D. In press. Drought-driven change in wildlife distribution and numbers: a case study of koalas in south west Queensland. Wildlife Research
Secor, S. M. 2009. Specific dynamic action: a review of the postprandial metabolic response. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 179:1-56.
Sherman, D. M., Acres, S. D., Sadowski, P. L., Springer, J. A., Bray, B., Raybould, T. J. G. and Muscoplat, C. C. 1983. Protection of calves against fatal enteric colibacillosis by orally administered Escherichia coli k99-specific monoclonal antibody. Infection and Immunity, 42: 653-658.
Simpson, S.J. and Raubenheimer, D. 1995. The Geometric Analysis of Feeding and Nutrition - a Users Guide. Journal of Insect Physiology 41:545-553.
Smith, M. 1992. Koalas and Land Use in the Gunnedah Shire: A Report on the Bearcare Project. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.
Wallis, I. R., Edwards, M., Windley, H. R., Krockenberger, A. K., Quenzer, M., Ganzhorn, J. U. and Foley, W. J. 2011. Food for folivores: how can we link diet nutritional quality to populations? Oecologia.
Weigler, B., Girjes, A., White, N., Kunst, N., Carrick, F. and Lavin, M. 1988. Aspects of the epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci infection in a population of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeastern Queensland, Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 24(2): 282-291.
Williams, A. A. J., Karoly, D. J. and Tapper, N. 2001. The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Climate Change 49:171-191
Woodward, W., Ellis, W., Carrick, F.N., Tanizaki, M., Bowen, D. and Smith, P. 2008. Koalas on North Stradbroke Island: diet, tree use and reconstructed landscapes. Wildlife Research 35:606-611.
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References

Adams-Hosking, C., Grantham, H. S., Rhodes, J. R., McAlpine, C. and Moss, P. T. 2011. Modelling climatechange-induced shifts in the distribution of the koala. Wildlife Research 38: 122-130.
Andrew, R.L., Wallis, I.R., Harwood, C.E. and Foley, W.J. 2010. Genetic and environmental contributions to variation and population divergence in a broad-spectrum foliar defence of Eucalyptus tricarpa.Annals of Botany 105: 707-717.
Barton, C. V. M., Ellsworth, D. S., Medlyn, B. E., Duursma, R. A., Tissue, D. T., Adams, M. A., Eamus, D., Conroy, J. P., McMurtrie, R. E., Parsby, J. and Linder, S. 2010. Wholetree chambers for elevated atmospheric CO2 experimentation and tree scale flux measurements in south-eastern Australia: The Hawkesbury Forest Experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 941-951.
Braithwaite, L.W., Turner, J. and Kelly, J. 1984. Studies of the arboreal marsupial fauna of eucalypt forests being harvested for woodpulp at Eden, New South Wales. III. Relationships between fauna1 densities, eucalypt occurrence and foliage nutrients and soil parent materials. Australian Wildlife Research 11:41-48.
Braithwaite, L. W., 2004. Do current forestry practices threaten forest fauna? A perspective. Pp 513-536. In Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Canfield, P.J. 1989. A survey of urinary tract disease in New South Wales koalas. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(4): 103-106.
Canfield, P.J., Love, D.N., Mearns, G. and Farram, E. 1991. Chlamydial infection in a colony of captive koalas. Australian Veterinary Journal, 68(5): 167-169.
Cary, G. J. 2002. Importance of a changing climate for fire regimes in Australia. Pp 26-46 in Flammable Australia. The fire regimes and biodiversity of a continent, edited by R.A. Bradstock, J.E. Williams and M.A. Gill. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Commonwealth of Australia [Hansard] 2011. Status, health and sustainability of Australia's koala population. Senate Environment and Communications Committee, 3 May 2011.
Cork S.J. and Catling P.C. 1996. Modelling distributions of arboreal and ground-dwelling mammals in relation to climate, nutrients, plant chemical defences and vegetation structure in the eucalypt forests of southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85:163-175.
Cunningham, A.A. and Daszak, P. 1998. Extinction of a species of land snail due to infection with a microsporidian parasite. Conservation Biology, 12(5): 1139-1141.
Crowther, M. S., McAlpine, C. A., Lunney, D., Shannon, I. and Bryant, J. V. 2009. Using broad-scale community survey data to compare species conservation strategies across regions: A case study of the Koala in a set of adjacent ‘catchments’. Ecological Restoration and Management 10 (S1): 88-96.
de Castro, F. and Bolker, B. 2005. Mechanisms of diseaseinduced extinction. Ecology Letters, 8(1): 117-126.
DECC 2008. Recovery Plan for the Koala (Phascolartos cinereus). Department of Environment and Climate Change NSW. DECC Goulburn St, Sydney, NSW Australia.
DECCW 2010a. Climate Change Impacts New England/North West NSW. Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/climatechange/understanding.htm
DECCW 2010b. NSW Priorities for biodiversity adaptation to climate change. State of NSW and Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
DeGabriel, J. L., Wallis, I. R., Moore, B. D. and Foley, W. J. 2008. A simple, integrative assay to quantify nutritional quality of browses for herbivores. Oecologia 156: 107-116
DeGabriel, J. L., Moore, B. D., Foley, W. J. and Johnson, C. N. 2009. The effects of plant defensive chemistry on nutrient availability predict reproductive success in a mammal. Ecology 90: 711-719.
Ellis, W.A.H., Girjes, A.A., Carrick, F.N. and Melzer, A. 1993. Chlamydial infection in koalas under relatively little alienation pressure. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 427-428.
Ellis, W.A.H., Melzer, A., Green, B., Newgrain, K., Hindell, M.A. and Carrick, F.N. 1995. Seasonal variation in water flux, field metabolic rate and food consumption of free-ranging koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Australian Journal of Zoology 43:59-68.
Ellis, W. A. H., Melzer, A. and Bercovitch, F. B. 2009. Spatiotemporal dynamics of habitat use by koalas: the checkerboard model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1181-1188.
Ellis, W.A.H, Melzer, A., Clifton, I. D. and Carrick, F. 2010. Climate change and the koala Phascolarctos cinereus: water and energy. In theme edition of Australian Zoologist “Ecology meets Physiology”, a Gordon Grigg festschrift, edited by L. Beard, D. Lunney, H. McCallum and C. Franklin. Australian Zoologist 35: 369-377.
Gleadow, R.M., Foley, W.J. and Woodrow, I.E. 1998. Enhanced CO2 alters the relationship between photosynthesis and defence in cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell. Plant Cell and Environment 21:12-22.
Gordon, G., Brown, A. S. and Pulsford, T. 1988. A koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss) population crash during drought and heatwave conditions in south-western Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 451-461.
Gordon, G., McGreevy, D.G. and Lawrie, B.C. 1990. Koala populations in Queensland: major limiting factors. Pp. 85-95 in Biology of the Koala, edited by A.K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia.
Handasyde, K. 1986. Factors affecting reproduction in the female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). PhD thesis, Monash University, Melbourne.
Hasson, A. E. A., Mills, G. A., Timbal, B. and Walsh, K. 2009. Assessing the impact of climate change on extreme fire weather events over southeastern Australia. Climate Research 39: 159-172.
Higgins, D.P., Hemsley, S. and Canfield, P.J. 2005. Association of uterine and salpingeal fibrosis with chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigen-specific antibodies in chlamydia-infected koalas. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12(5): 632-639.
Hughes, L., Cawsey, E. M. and Westoby, M. 1996. Climatic Range Sizes of Eucalyptus species in Relation to Future Climate Change. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 5: 23-29.
Jackson, M., White, N., Giffard, P. and Timms, P. 1999. Epizootiology of Chlamydia infections in two free-range koala populations. Veterinary Microbiology, 65(4): 255-264.
Kearney, M., Wintle, B. and Porter, W. P. 2010. Correlative and mechanistic models of species distribution provide congruent forecasts under climate change. Conservation Letters 3:203-213.
Krockenberger, A. 2003. Meeting the energy demands of reproduction in female koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus: evidence for energetic compensation. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 173:531-540.
Lawler, I.R., Foley, W.J., Woodrow, I. E. and Cork, S.J. 1997. The effects of elevated CO2 atmospheres on the nutritional quality of Eucalyptus foliage and its interaction with soil nutrient and light availability. Oecologia 109: 59-68.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S.M., Mahon, P.S. and Matthews, A. 2004. Post-fire survival and reproduction of rehabilitated and unburnt koalas. Biological Conservation 120: 567-575.
Lunney, D., Gresser, S., O'Neill, L. E., Matthews, A. and Rhodes, J. 2007. The impact of fire and dogs on koalas at Port Stephens, New South Wales, using population viability analysis. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 189-201.
Lunney, D., Crowther, M. S., Shannon, I. and Bryant, J. V. 2009. Combining a map-based public survey with an estimation of site occupancy to determine the recent and changing distribution of the koala in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 36: 262-273.
Maloiy, G. M. O., Kanui, T. I., Towett, P. K., Wambugu, S.N., Miaron, J. O. and Wanyoike M. M. 2008. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology 151:185-190.
Martin, R. and Handasyde, K. 1999. The koala: natural history, conservation and management. 2nd edn, University of NSW Press, Kensington, NSW.
Matthews, A., Lunney, D., Gresser, S. and Maitz, W. 2007. Tree use by koalas Phascolarctos cinereus after fire in remnant coastal forest. Wildlife Research 34: 84-93.
McAlpine, C. A., Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., Bowen, M. E., Lunney, D., Mitchell, D. L., Pullar, D.V. and Possingham, H. P. 2006. The importance of forest area and configuration relative to local habitat factors for conserving forest mammals: a case study of koalas in Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 132: 153-165.
McLean, N. 2003. Ecology and management of overabundant koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
Milthorpe, P. L and Cunninham, G. M. 2005. The Kurrajong. Primefact 16. NSW DPI. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/44981/The_kurrajong_-_Primefact_16-final.pdf
Moore, B. D., Wallis, I. R., Marsh, K. J. and Foley W. J. 2004. The role of nutrition in the conservation of the marsupial folivores of eucalypt forests. Pp 549-575. In Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW Australia.
Pereira, A. M. F., Baccari, F., Titto, E. A. L., Almeida, J. A. A. 2008. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds. International Journal of Biometeorology 52:199-208.
Reed, P. and Lunney, D. 1990. Habitat loss: the key problem for the long-term survival of koalas in NSW. Pp 9-31 in Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW, edited by D. Lunney, C.A. Urquhart and P. Reed. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville, NSW.
Rhodes, J. R., Callaghan, J. G., McAlpine, C. A., de Jong, C., Bowen, M. E., Mitchell, D. L., Lunney, D. and Possingham, H. P. 2008. Regional variation in habitat-occupancy thresholds: a warning for conservation planning. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 549-557.
Rhodes, J. R., Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and McAlpine, C. A. 2011. The consequences of using indirect signs that decay to determine species' occupancy. Ecography 34:141-150.
Schloegel, L., Hero, J.-M., Berger, L., Speare, R., McDonald, K. and Daszak, P. 2006. The decline of the sharp-snouted day frog (Taudactylus acutirostris): the first documented case of extinction by infection in a free-ranging wildlife species? EcoHealth, 3:35-40.
Seabrook, L., McApline, C., Baxter, G., Rhodes, J., Bradley, A. and Lunney, D. In press. Drought-driven change in wildlife distribution and numbers: a case study of koalas in south west Queensland. Wildlife Research
Secor, S. M. 2009. Specific dynamic action: a review of the postprandial metabolic response. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 179:1-56.
Sherman, D. M., Acres, S. D., Sadowski, P. L., Springer, J. A., Bray, B., Raybould, T. J. G. and Muscoplat, C. C. 1983. Protection of calves against fatal enteric colibacillosis by orally administered Escherichia coli k99-specific monoclonal antibody. Infection and Immunity, 42: 653-658.
Simpson, S.J. and Raubenheimer, D. 1995. The Geometric Analysis of Feeding and Nutrition - a Users Guide. Journal of Insect Physiology 41:545-553.
Smith, M. 1992. Koalas and Land Use in the Gunnedah Shire: A Report on the Bearcare Project. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service: Sydney.
Wallis, I. R., Edwards, M., Windley, H. R., Krockenberger, A. K., Quenzer, M., Ganzhorn, J. U. and Foley, W. J. 2011. Food for folivores: how can we link diet nutritional quality to populations? Oecologia.
Weigler, B., Girjes, A., White, N., Kunst, N., Carrick, F. and Lavin, M. 1988. Aspects of the epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci infection in a population of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeastern Queensland, Australia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 24(2): 282-291.
Williams, A. A. J., Karoly, D. J. and Tapper, N. 2001. The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Climate Change 49:171-191
Woodward, W., Ellis, W., Carrick, F.N., Tanizaki, M., Bowen, D. and Smith, P. 2008. Koalas on North Stradbroke Island: diet, tree use and reconstructed landscapes. Wildlife Research 35:606-611.
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