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The south-west region of Victoria is currently experiencing rapid growth in the number of proposed wind farms. A maternity roost and an unknown number of staging and winter roosts of the Southern Bent-wing Bat Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii(Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999(EPBC Act) and Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988(FFG Act)) are known from the region. Bat detectors have been the primary tool used to survey for the presence of bats at proposed wind farms, however it was recognized by government agencies that both the survey effort and design could be more rigorous. This has since been addressed with the development of ‘Guidelines for bat surveys in relation to wind farms’ by the Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) in January 2007. The author's recent experience with the guidelines was that they are very effective in identifying most species present and provided information on habitat use. They do not, however, overcome all the technical limitations encountered when undertaking bat surveys, especially for M. schreibersii bassanii. These limitations include: bat call parameters overlap for some species, difficulty in quantifying the number of bats using a site, mapping the direction of flight and / or migration paths, the volume of space monitored by a bat detector and placing the bat detector at the height where bats commonly fly. This paper discusses the use of radar technology and I propose it will vastly improve our understanding of site utilization, as well as number of individuals and flight paths of Southern Bent-wing Bats at proposed wind farm sites.

Alhen, I. 2002. Heterodyne and time expansion methods for identification of bats in the field and through sound analysis. Pp 72-79 in Bat Echolocation Research, Tools, Techniques and Analysis, edited by M.R. Brigham, E.K.V. Kalko, G. Jones, S. Parsons and H.J.G.A. Limpens. Bat Conservation International, Texas.
Altringham, J. 1999 Bats, Biology and Behaviour. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Arnett, E. B., Brown, W. K., Erickson, W. P., Fiedler, K.K., Hamilton, B.L., Henry, T.H., Jain, A., Johnson, G. D., Kerns, J., Koford, R.R., Nicholson, C.P., O'Connell, T.J., Piorkowski, M. D and Tankersley, R.D. 2008. Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 72 (1): 61-78.
Auswind. 2002. Best Practise Guidelines for Implementation of Wind Energy Projects in Australia: The Australian Wind Energy Association; Melbourne.
Banon, C., Kay, E. and Schutt, S. 2005 Waubra Wind Farm Planning Permit Call In: Applications 05/0150 & 05/0152 Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Barclay, R. M.R., Baerwald, E.F. and Gruver, J.C. 2007. Variation in bat and bird fatalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Journal of Zoology 85: 381-387.
Barclay, R. M.R. & Bell, G.P. 1988. Marking and Observational Techniques. Pp 59-76 in Ecological and Behavioural Methods for the Study of Bats, edited by T. H. Kunz. Smithsonian Institution, USA.
Baerwald, E.F., D'Amours, G.H., Klug, B.J. and Barclay, R.M.R. 2008. Barotrauma is a significant cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Current Biology 18: 695-696
Behrend, O. and Schuller, G. 2004. New aspects of Dopplershift compensation in the Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. Pp. 17-21 in Echolocation in Bat and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Barlow, K. (1999) Expedition Field Techniques: Bats. Royal Geographical Society: London.
Bruderer, B. and Popa-Lisseanu, A.G. 2005. Radar data on wing beat frequencies and flight speeds of two bats. Acta Chiropterologica 7(1): 73-82.
Bullen, R.D. and McKenzie, N.L. 2002. Scaling bat wingbeat frequency and amplitude. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 2615-2626.
Burgess, D., Osmond, T., Wilson, R. and Sanderson, K. 1995. Bat flight speed measured outside the Flinders University Sports Centre. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 5: 12.
Cardinal, B. R. and Christidis, L. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology reveal three geographically distinct lineages of the large bent-wing bat ( Miniopterus schreibersii) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 48 (1): 1-19.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland: Sydney.
Department of Sustainability and Environment. 2005 Atlas of Victorian Wildlife. Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
DeTect, Inc. 2005 An Overview: Radar technology for Assessment of Avian Issues at Wind Energy Project Sites. DeTect Inc: Florida
DeTect, Inc. 2007 Avian Radar systems. DeTect Inc: Florida
Dwyer, P.D. 1995. Common Bent-wing-Bat. Pp. 494-495 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, NSW.
Dwyer, P. D. and Hamilton-Smith, E. 1965. Breeding caves and maternity colonies of the Bent-winged Bat in south-eastern Australia. Helectite 4: 3-21.
Echo Track Inc. 2005 An investigation of a new Monitoring Technology for birds and Bats. Echo Track; Canada.
Essential Service Commission 19 March 2007 Victorian Renewable Energy Target (VRET) scheme. http://www.esc.vic.gov.au/public/VRET/
Gilmore, D. and Mueck, S. 2006 Flora and Fauna assessment of the proposed Newfield wind farm, Victoria. Biosis Research: Melbourne.
Goodman, S.T., Bradmand, H. M., Maminirina, C. P., Ryan, K. R., Christidis, L. L and Appleton, B. 2008. A new species of Miniopterus (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) from lowland southeastern Madagascar. Mammalian Biology 73 (3): 199-213
Grant, C. and Reardon, T. 2004. The use of video taping of fly-outs for the population assessment of cave-dwelling bats. Spoken Paper; 12thAustralasian Bat Society Conference; Toowoomba 2004. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 22: 34
Gration, R. 2007a Southern Bent-wing Bat and General Bat Activity Report for Proposed Woolsthorpe Wind Farm. Report prepared by Environmental and Biodiversity Services for Woolsthorpe Wind Farm Pty Ltd, Melbourne April 2007.
Gration, R. 2007b Southern Bent-wing Bat and General Bat Activity Report for Proposed Drysdale Wind Farm. Report prepared by Environmental and Biodiversity Services for Drysdale Wind Farm Pty Ltd, Melbourne March 2007.
Hall, L.S. and Richards, G.C. 1979 Bats of Eastern Australia. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.
Hall, L.S. and Richards, G.C. 2004. Flying around underground: cave bats. Pp. 111-126 in Beneath The Surface: A Natural History of Australian Caves, edited by B. Finlayson and E. Hamilton-Smith. University of NSW Press, Sydney.
Harty, C., Evans, B. and Kay, E. 2005 Mt Gellibrand Windfarm Colac Otway Planning Scheme Planning Permit Application PL-SP/05/0257 Panel Report: Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Harvey, M.J. Altenbach, J.S. and Best, T.L. 1999 Bats of the United States. Arkensas Game & Fish Commission, USA.
Hill, J. E. and Smith, J.D. 1984 Bats: A Natural History. Rigby Publishers: London.
Horne, J.W., Arnett, E.B. and Kunz, T.H. 2008. Behavioural responses of bats to operating wind turbines. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 123-132
Jacka, E. and Thatcher, A. 2005 Corangamite Planning Scheme Planning Permit Application: PL-SP/05/01424 Naroghid Wind Farm Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Jacka, E. and Westwood, J. 2003 Wonthaggi Wind Farm Environmental Effects Statement Permit Application 0266 Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Kelly, A. T., McLaughlin, S. and Smith, A. 2007 New Ornithological Radar Technologies for Bird & Bat Discrimination and Species Identification. Detect Inc: Florida.
Kenward, R.E. 2001 A Manual for Wildlife Radio Tagging. Academic Press: London.
Kunz, T.H. 2003. Censusing Bats: Challenges, solutions and sampling bias. Pp 9-20 in Monitoring Trends in Bat Populations of the United States and Territories: Problems and Prospects, edited by T.J. O'shea and M.A. Bogan. U.S Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Society.
Kunz, T.H., Arnett, E.B., Erickson, W.P., Hoar, A.R., Johnson, G. D., Larkin, R.P., Strickland, M.D., Thresher, R.W. and Tuttle, M.D. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5: 315-324.
Larkin, R.P. 2005. Radar techniques for wildlife biology. In Techniques For Wildlife Investigations and Management, edited by C.E. Braun (6th Edition). The Wildlife Society, USA.
Larson, D.J. and Hayes, J.P. 2000. Variability in sensitivity of Anabat detectors and a method of calibration. Acta Chiropterologica 2(2): 209-213
Lumsden, L. 2007 Guidelines for bat surveys in relation to wind farm developments. Dept of Sustainability & Environment: Melbourne
McCracken, G.F. and Westbrook, J. K. 2002. Bat patrol. National Geographic 201(4): 114-123
Menkhorst, P.W. and Lumsden, L. F. 1996. Common Bentwing Bat. Pp 180-181 in Mammals of Victoria: Distribution, Ecology and Conservation, edited by P. Menkhorst. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
National Research Council of the National Academies. 2007 Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects. The National Academies Press: Washington USA.
Neuweiler, G. 2000 The Biology of Bats. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Nowak, R.N. 1994 Walker's Bats of the World. The John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
Richards, G.C. 2005 An Assessment of the Bat Fauna at the Proposed MacArthur Wind Farm, Victoria. Report prepared by Greg Richards and Associates Pty Ltd for Brett Lane and Associates, December 2005.
Robson, S., Blair, D., Luly, J., Pallot, P., Parsons, J. and Shilton, L. 2006 When bats and planes meet: a proposal to limit the impact of bat strikes in the aviation industry. Spoken Paper 12thAustralasian Bat Society Conference 2006: Australasian Bat Society Newsletter No 26: 28.
Saunders, R., Munro, D. and Thatcher, A. 2006 Permit Application: PL-SP/05/0283 Macarthur Wind Farm Panel Report: Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Schneider, J. and Martin, L. 2003 ASU MAT 591: Opportunities In Industry! History of Radar.
Schuller, G. and Moss, C.F. 2004. Vocal control and acoustically guided behaviour in bats. Pp. 3-16 in Echolocation in Bat and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Smith, R., Banon, C. and Finn, P. 2004 Bald Hills Wind Farm Project EES, EES Supplement and Called in Planning Permits Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria. 2003a Policy and planning guidelines for development of wind energy facilities in Victoria. Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria: Melbourne.
Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria. 2003b Victorian Wind Atlas. Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria: Melbourne.
Wilkes, K. 1980 Radio and Radar in Sail and Power Boats. Nautical Publishing Co Ltd: Hampshire: Great Britain.
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References

Alhen, I. 2002. Heterodyne and time expansion methods for identification of bats in the field and through sound analysis. Pp 72-79 in Bat Echolocation Research, Tools, Techniques and Analysis, edited by M.R. Brigham, E.K.V. Kalko, G. Jones, S. Parsons and H.J.G.A. Limpens. Bat Conservation International, Texas.
Altringham, J. 1999 Bats, Biology and Behaviour. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Arnett, E. B., Brown, W. K., Erickson, W. P., Fiedler, K.K., Hamilton, B.L., Henry, T.H., Jain, A., Johnson, G. D., Kerns, J., Koford, R.R., Nicholson, C.P., O'Connell, T.J., Piorkowski, M. D and Tankersley, R.D. 2008. Patterns of bat fatalities at wind energy facilities North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 72 (1): 61-78.
Auswind. 2002. Best Practise Guidelines for Implementation of Wind Energy Projects in Australia: The Australian Wind Energy Association; Melbourne.
Banon, C., Kay, E. and Schutt, S. 2005 Waubra Wind Farm Planning Permit Call In: Applications 05/0150 & 05/0152 Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Barclay, R. M.R., Baerwald, E.F. and Gruver, J.C. 2007. Variation in bat and bird fatalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Journal of Zoology 85: 381-387.
Barclay, R. M.R. & Bell, G.P. 1988. Marking and Observational Techniques. Pp 59-76 in Ecological and Behavioural Methods for the Study of Bats, edited by T. H. Kunz. Smithsonian Institution, USA.
Baerwald, E.F., D'Amours, G.H., Klug, B.J. and Barclay, R.M.R. 2008. Barotrauma is a significant cause of bat fatalities at wind turbines. Current Biology 18: 695-696
Behrend, O. and Schuller, G. 2004. New aspects of Dopplershift compensation in the Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. Pp. 17-21 in Echolocation in Bat and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Barlow, K. (1999) Expedition Field Techniques: Bats. Royal Geographical Society: London.
Bruderer, B. and Popa-Lisseanu, A.G. 2005. Radar data on wing beat frequencies and flight speeds of two bats. Acta Chiropterologica 7(1): 73-82.
Bullen, R.D. and McKenzie, N.L. 2002. Scaling bat wingbeat frequency and amplitude. The Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 2615-2626.
Burgess, D., Osmond, T., Wilson, R. and Sanderson, K. 1995. Bat flight speed measured outside the Flinders University Sports Centre. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 5: 12.
Cardinal, B. R. and Christidis, L. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology reveal three geographically distinct lineages of the large bent-wing bat ( Miniopterus schreibersii) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 48 (1): 1-19.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland: Sydney.
Department of Sustainability and Environment. 2005 Atlas of Victorian Wildlife. Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
DeTect, Inc. 2005 An Overview: Radar technology for Assessment of Avian Issues at Wind Energy Project Sites. DeTect Inc: Florida
DeTect, Inc. 2007 Avian Radar systems. DeTect Inc: Florida
Dwyer, P.D. 1995. Common Bent-wing-Bat. Pp. 494-495 in The Mammals of Australia, edited by R. Strahan. Reed Books, NSW.
Dwyer, P. D. and Hamilton-Smith, E. 1965. Breeding caves and maternity colonies of the Bent-winged Bat in south-eastern Australia. Helectite 4: 3-21.
Echo Track Inc. 2005 An investigation of a new Monitoring Technology for birds and Bats. Echo Track; Canada.
Essential Service Commission 19 March 2007 Victorian Renewable Energy Target (VRET) scheme. http://www.esc.vic.gov.au/public/VRET/
Gilmore, D. and Mueck, S. 2006 Flora and Fauna assessment of the proposed Newfield wind farm, Victoria. Biosis Research: Melbourne.
Goodman, S.T., Bradmand, H. M., Maminirina, C. P., Ryan, K. R., Christidis, L. L and Appleton, B. 2008. A new species of Miniopterus (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) from lowland southeastern Madagascar. Mammalian Biology 73 (3): 199-213
Grant, C. and Reardon, T. 2004. The use of video taping of fly-outs for the population assessment of cave-dwelling bats. Spoken Paper; 12thAustralasian Bat Society Conference; Toowoomba 2004. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 22: 34
Gration, R. 2007a Southern Bent-wing Bat and General Bat Activity Report for Proposed Woolsthorpe Wind Farm. Report prepared by Environmental and Biodiversity Services for Woolsthorpe Wind Farm Pty Ltd, Melbourne April 2007.
Gration, R. 2007b Southern Bent-wing Bat and General Bat Activity Report for Proposed Drysdale Wind Farm. Report prepared by Environmental and Biodiversity Services for Drysdale Wind Farm Pty Ltd, Melbourne March 2007.
Hall, L.S. and Richards, G.C. 1979 Bats of Eastern Australia. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.
Hall, L.S. and Richards, G.C. 2004. Flying around underground: cave bats. Pp. 111-126 in Beneath The Surface: A Natural History of Australian Caves, edited by B. Finlayson and E. Hamilton-Smith. University of NSW Press, Sydney.
Harty, C., Evans, B. and Kay, E. 2005 Mt Gellibrand Windfarm Colac Otway Planning Scheme Planning Permit Application PL-SP/05/0257 Panel Report: Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Harvey, M.J. Altenbach, J.S. and Best, T.L. 1999 Bats of the United States. Arkensas Game & Fish Commission, USA.
Hill, J. E. and Smith, J.D. 1984 Bats: A Natural History. Rigby Publishers: London.
Horne, J.W., Arnett, E.B. and Kunz, T.H. 2008. Behavioural responses of bats to operating wind turbines. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 123-132
Jacka, E. and Thatcher, A. 2005 Corangamite Planning Scheme Planning Permit Application: PL-SP/05/01424 Naroghid Wind Farm Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Jacka, E. and Westwood, J. 2003 Wonthaggi Wind Farm Environmental Effects Statement Permit Application 0266 Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Kelly, A. T., McLaughlin, S. and Smith, A. 2007 New Ornithological Radar Technologies for Bird & Bat Discrimination and Species Identification. Detect Inc: Florida.
Kenward, R.E. 2001 A Manual for Wildlife Radio Tagging. Academic Press: London.
Kunz, T.H. 2003. Censusing Bats: Challenges, solutions and sampling bias. Pp 9-20 in Monitoring Trends in Bat Populations of the United States and Territories: Problems and Prospects, edited by T.J. O'shea and M.A. Bogan. U.S Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Society.
Kunz, T.H., Arnett, E.B., Erickson, W.P., Hoar, A.R., Johnson, G. D., Larkin, R.P., Strickland, M.D., Thresher, R.W. and Tuttle, M.D. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs, and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5: 315-324.
Larkin, R.P. 2005. Radar techniques for wildlife biology. In Techniques For Wildlife Investigations and Management, edited by C.E. Braun (6th Edition). The Wildlife Society, USA.
Larson, D.J. and Hayes, J.P. 2000. Variability in sensitivity of Anabat detectors and a method of calibration. Acta Chiropterologica 2(2): 209-213
Lumsden, L. 2007 Guidelines for bat surveys in relation to wind farm developments. Dept of Sustainability & Environment: Melbourne
McCracken, G.F. and Westbrook, J. K. 2002. Bat patrol. National Geographic 201(4): 114-123
Menkhorst, P.W. and Lumsden, L. F. 1996. Common Bentwing Bat. Pp 180-181 in Mammals of Victoria: Distribution, Ecology and Conservation, edited by P. Menkhorst. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
National Research Council of the National Academies. 2007 Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects. The National Academies Press: Washington USA.
Neuweiler, G. 2000 The Biology of Bats. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Nowak, R.N. 1994 Walker's Bats of the World. The John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.
Richards, G.C. 2005 An Assessment of the Bat Fauna at the Proposed MacArthur Wind Farm, Victoria. Report prepared by Greg Richards and Associates Pty Ltd for Brett Lane and Associates, December 2005.
Robson, S., Blair, D., Luly, J., Pallot, P., Parsons, J. and Shilton, L. 2006 When bats and planes meet: a proposal to limit the impact of bat strikes in the aviation industry. Spoken Paper 12thAustralasian Bat Society Conference 2006: Australasian Bat Society Newsletter No 26: 28.
Saunders, R., Munro, D. and Thatcher, A. 2006 Permit Application: PL-SP/05/0283 Macarthur Wind Farm Panel Report: Department of Sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Schneider, J. and Martin, L. 2003 ASU MAT 591: Opportunities In Industry! History of Radar.
Schuller, G. and Moss, C.F. 2004. Vocal control and acoustically guided behaviour in bats. Pp. 3-16 in Echolocation in Bat and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Smith, R., Banon, C. and Finn, P. 2004 Bald Hills Wind Farm Project EES, EES Supplement and Called in Planning Permits Panel Report: Department of sustainability and Environment: Melbourne.
Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria. 2003a Policy and planning guidelines for development of wind energy facilities in Victoria. Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria: Melbourne.
Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria. 2003b Victorian Wind Atlas. Sustainability Energy Authority Victoria: Melbourne.
Wilkes, K. 1980 Radio and Radar in Sail and Power Boats. Nautical Publishing Co Ltd: Hampshire: Great Britain.
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