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New South Wales, including the small enclave of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), has a diverse bat fauna of 39 taxa (34 microchiropterans and 5 megachiropterans). In NSW, 22 (56%) of chiropteran taxa are listed as threatened, 20 as vulnerable, one as endangered and one extinct under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. There are no threatened bats listed in the ACT under the Nature Conservation Act 1980. We mapped the geographic distribution and relative density of specimen and observation data (excluding ultrasonic records because of the uncertainty of identification) for each species using weighted Kernel Density Estimate models based on 96,000 unique records of more than 3 million individual bats observed in NSW and ACT. We investigated the use of existing distribution and observation data to identify trends in reporting rates for each taxon over the past decade using a non parametric rank analysis to determine the annual ratio of observations per species versus a surrogate for effort. We also investigated regional patterns in the distribution of the bat fauna using PATN association and classification analysis to identify 6 distinct ‘bat regions’ based on the species composition of the 18 biogeographic regions within NSW & ACT. We found that survey effort and data were unevenly distributed spatially, taxonomically and temporally. Fifty-six percent of all records are from three coastal bioregions, 5 species account for 52% of all records, and conversely over 50% of the species account for less than 5% of all records. Further, most (60%) of the records are from the last 20 years. As most of our data are from large-scale, inventory type surveys, we recommend that greater attention should be devoted to targeted research and long-term monitoring. Without monitoring, identifying trends in species and populations is almost impossible. The status of most bats will remain threatened without action to ameliorate threats and monitor changes in population sizes and their distribution.

Adams, M.D., Law, B.S. and Gibson, M.S., 2010. Reliable automation of bat call identification for eastern New South Wales, Australia, using classification trees and AnaScheme software. Acta Chiropterologica 12(1): 231-245.
Adams M, Reardon, T.R., Baverstock, P.R, and Watts, C.H.S. 1988. Electrophoretic resolution of species boundaries in Australian Microchiroptera. IV Molossidae (Chiroptera). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 40: 417-433.
Anderson, R. P., Lew, D. and Peterson, A.T. 2003. Evaluating Predictive Models of Species Distributions: Criteria For Selecting Optimal Models. Ecological Modelling 162: 211-232.
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R., and Poulter, R. 2003 The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.
Barry, S. J and Shaffer, H. B. 1994. The status of the California tiger salamander ( Ambystoma californiense) at Lagunita: a 50 year update. Journal of Herpetology 28: 159-164.
Belbin, L. 1991. Semi-strong Hybrid Scaling, a new ordination algorithm. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 491-496.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland. Frenchs Forest NSW. (Note: There is a 2008 edition, and we ask everyone to use it, but our reference here was to the first edition because it was the one used in the analyses in this paper).
Constantine, D. G. 1958. An Automatic Bat-Collecting Device The Journal of Wildlife Management 22 (1): 17-22.
Davies, K.F., Margules, C.R., Lawrence, J.F. 2000. Which traits of species predict population declines in experimental forest fragments? Ecology (81) 5: 1450-1461.
Ellis, M. 2001. The first record of the Hairy-nosed Freetail Bat in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 608-609.
Fielding, A. H., Haworth, P. F. 1995. Testing the generality of bird habitat models. Conservation biology 9:1466- 1481.
Glanznig, A. 1995 Native Vegetation Clearance, Habitat Loss and Biodiversity Decline an overview of recent native vegetation clearance in Australia and its implications for biodiversity. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 6. Biodiversity Unit. Environment Australia. Canberra.
Hester, L. and Myers, P. 2001. “Vespertilionidae” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 10, 2007 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vespertilionidae.html.
Johnson, C., Cogger, H., Dickman, C., Ford, H. 2007 Impacts of land clearing: The impacts of approved clearing of native vegetation on Australian wildlife in New South Wales. WWF-Australia Report. WWF-Australia. Sydney.
Larson, D. P., Kincaid, T. M., Jacobs, S.E., Urquhart, N.S. 2001. Designs for evaluating local and regional scale trends. Bioscience (51)12: 1069-1078.
Law, B.S. 1996. The ecology of bats in south-east Australian forests and potential impacts of forestry practices: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 363-74.
Law, B.S. 2004. Challenges for the management of bats in State Forests of NSW. Pp 748-60 in the Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna(2nd edition) edited by D. Lunney, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1999. Bat communities in a fragmented forest landscape on the south-west slopes of New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 88: 333-45.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2002. Tracks and riparian zones facilitate the use of Australian regrowth forest by insectivorous bats. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 605-17.
Law B. and Chidel M. 2006. Eucalypt plantings on farms: use by insectivorous bats. Biological Conservation 133: 236-49.
Law, B.S. and Lean, M., 1999. Blossom bats Syconycteris australis as pollinators in fragmented rainforests of the Atherton Tablelands, Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 91: 201-12.
Law, B.S., Reinhold, L., and Pennay, M., 2002. Geographic variation in the echolocation calls of Vespadelus spp. (Vespertilionidae) from New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. Acta Chiropterologia 4: 201-15.
Lawrence, W.F. 1991. Ecological correlates of extinction proneness in Australian tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 5: 79-89.
Lloyd A., Law B. and Goldingay R. 2006. Bat activity on riparian zones and upper slopes in Australian timber production forests and the effectiveness of riparian buffers. Biological Conservation 129: 207-220.
Lumsden, L.F., Bennett, A.F. and Sillins, J.E. 2002. Location of roosts of the lesser long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi and Gould's wattled bat Chalinolobus gouldii in a fragmented landscape in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 106(2): 237-249
Lumsden, L.F. and Bennett, A. F. 2005. Scattered trees in rural landscapes: foraging habitat for insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 122(2): 205-222.
Lunney D., Law B. and Baverstock P. 1996b. Towards a national bat research strategy for Australia: pointers arising from a survey of participants at the Sixth National Bat Conference. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 206-11.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996a. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Fisher, D., Ayers, D. and Dickman, C. R. 1997. The ecological attributes of the threatened fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 13-26.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Cogger, H. and Dickman, C. 2004. The neglected 74% - the non-threatened vertebrates - and a reflection on the limitations of the process that fashioned the current schedules of threatened species in New South Wales. Pp 145-157 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act?, edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney, and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D., Law, B., Schulz, M. and Pennay. M. 2011a. Turning the spotlight onto the conservation of Australian bats and the extinction of the Christmas Island Pipistrelle. Pp 475-498 in The Biology and Conservation of Australasian Bats, edited by B. Law, P. Eby, D. Lunney and L. Lumsden. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Lunney, D., Parnaby, H., Pennay, M., Haering, R., Law, B., Eby, P., Schulz, M. and Turbill, C. 2011b. The Priorities Action Statement (PAS) for the threatened bats of New South Wales. Pp 340-356. in The Biology and Conservation of Australasian Bats, edited by B. Law, P. Eby, D. Lunney and L. Lumsden. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Manel, S., Ceri Williams, H., Ormerod, S. J. 2001. Evaluating Presence-Absence models in ecology: the need to account for prevalence. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 921-931.
McCarthy, M.A., Lindenmayer, D.B., Drechsler, M. 1997. Extinction debts and risks faced by abundant species. Conservation Biology 11: 221-226.
McKean, J. L. 1975. The bats of Lord Howe Island with the description of a new Nyctopholine bat. Australian Mammalogy 1: 329-332.
McKinney, M.L. 1997. Extinction vulnerability and selectivity: Combining ecological and paleontological views. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 495-516.
Molnar R.E., Hall L.S. and Mahoney J.A. 1984. New fossil localities for Macroderma Miller,1906 (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) in New South Wales and its past and present distribution in Australia. Australian Mammalogy 7: 63-73.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. 2006. NSW State of the Environment 2006. NSW Dept of Environment and Conservation: Sydney.
O'shea, T.J. and Bogan, M.A., (Eds.) 2003, Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: problems and prospects: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Information and Technology Report, Springfield VA.
Parnaby H. 1992 An interim guide to identification of insectivorous bats of south-eastern Australia. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum No. 8. Australian Museum, Sydney.
Parnaby, H. 2009. A taxonomic review of Australian Greater Long-eared Bats previously known as Nyctophilus timoriensis(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and some associated taxa. Australian Zoologist 35: 39-81.
Pennay, M. 2006 Ecological study of the Endangered Bristle-nosed Bat Mormopterus ‘species 6’ and survey of microchiropteran bats in Gundabooka National Park. Report for NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Sydney.
Pennay, M., Law, B., Reinhold, L. 2004 Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to the echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.
Pennay, M. and Gosper, C. 2002 Brigalow Belt South Stage 2 Vertebrate Fauna Survey, Analysis and Modelling Projects. Resource and Conservation Division, Planning NSW. Sydney.
Piller, K.R., Henry, L. B. and Tipton, J. A. 2004. Decline of the Frecklebelly Madtom in the Pearl River Based on Contemporary and Historical Surveys. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 1004-1013.
Platanita, S. P. 1991. Fishes of the Rio Chama and upper Rio Grande, New Mexico, with preliminary comments on their longitudinal distribution. Southwest Naturalist 36: 186-193.
Ponder, W. F., Carter, G. A., Flemons, P. and Chapman, R. R. 2001. Evaluation of Museum Collection Data for Use in Biodiversity Assessment. Conservation Biology 15 (3): 648-657
Racey, P. A. and Entwistle, A. C. 2003. Conservation Ecology, Bat Ecology. Edited by Kunz T.H & Fenton, M. B. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Pp. 680-743
Reardon, T., Adams, M., McKenzie, N. and Jenkins, P. 2008. A new species of Australian freetail bat Mormopterus eleryi sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and a taxonomic reappraisal of M. norfolkensis(Gray). Zootaxa 1875: 1-31.
Rodriguez, J.P. 2002. Range contraction in declining North American bird populations. Ecological Applications(12)1: 238-248.
Shaffer, B. H., Fisher, R. N., Davidson, C. 1998. The Role of Natural History Collections in Documenting Species Declines. Tree 13: 27-30.
Seaman, D. E. and Powell, R. A. 1996. An Evaluation of the Accuracy of Kernel Density Estimators for Home Range Analysis. Ecology77(7): 2075-2085.
Tidemann, C. and Woodside, D. 1978. A collapsible bat-trap and a comparison of results obtained with the trap and mist-nets. Australian Wildlife Research5, 355-362
Turbill, C., Lumsden, L.F., and Ford, G.I. 2008. South-eastern and Tasmanian Long-eared Bats. P 527-528 in Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. Editors, The Mammals of Australia, 3rd Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds) 2008 The Mammals of Australia(3rd edition). Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Wald, A., Wolfowitz, J. 1943. An exact test for randomness in the non-parametric case, based on serial correlation. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 14: 378-388.
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Adams, M.D., Law, B.S. and Gibson, M.S., 2010. Reliable automation of bat call identification for eastern New South Wales, Australia, using classification trees and AnaScheme software. Acta Chiropterologica 12(1): 231-245.
Adams M, Reardon, T.R., Baverstock, P.R, and Watts, C.H.S. 1988. Electrophoretic resolution of species boundaries in Australian Microchiroptera. IV Molossidae (Chiroptera). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 40: 417-433.
Anderson, R. P., Lew, D. and Peterson, A.T. 2003. Evaluating Predictive Models of Species Distributions: Criteria For Selecting Optimal Models. Ecological Modelling 162: 211-232.
Barrett, G., Silcocks, A., Barry, S., Cunningham, R., and Poulter, R. 2003 The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.
Barry, S. J and Shaffer, H. B. 1994. The status of the California tiger salamander ( Ambystoma californiense) at Lagunita: a 50 year update. Journal of Herpetology 28: 159-164.
Belbin, L. 1991. Semi-strong Hybrid Scaling, a new ordination algorithm. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 491-496.
Churchill, S. 1998 Australian Bats. Reed New Holland. Frenchs Forest NSW. (Note: There is a 2008 edition, and we ask everyone to use it, but our reference here was to the first edition because it was the one used in the analyses in this paper).
Constantine, D. G. 1958. An Automatic Bat-Collecting Device The Journal of Wildlife Management 22 (1): 17-22.
Davies, K.F., Margules, C.R., Lawrence, J.F. 2000. Which traits of species predict population declines in experimental forest fragments? Ecology (81) 5: 1450-1461.
Ellis, M. 2001. The first record of the Hairy-nosed Freetail Bat in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 608-609.
Fielding, A. H., Haworth, P. F. 1995. Testing the generality of bird habitat models. Conservation biology 9:1466- 1481.
Glanznig, A. 1995 Native Vegetation Clearance, Habitat Loss and Biodiversity Decline an overview of recent native vegetation clearance in Australia and its implications for biodiversity. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 6. Biodiversity Unit. Environment Australia. Canberra.
Hester, L. and Myers, P. 2001. “Vespertilionidae” (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 10, 2007 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Vespertilionidae.html.
Johnson, C., Cogger, H., Dickman, C., Ford, H. 2007 Impacts of land clearing: The impacts of approved clearing of native vegetation on Australian wildlife in New South Wales. WWF-Australia Report. WWF-Australia. Sydney.
Larson, D. P., Kincaid, T. M., Jacobs, S.E., Urquhart, N.S. 2001. Designs for evaluating local and regional scale trends. Bioscience (51)12: 1069-1078.
Law, B.S. 1996. The ecology of bats in south-east Australian forests and potential impacts of forestry practices: a review. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 363-74.
Law, B.S. 2004. Challenges for the management of bats in State Forests of NSW. Pp 748-60 in the Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna(2nd edition) edited by D. Lunney, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.
Law, B.S., Anderson, J. and Chidel, M. 1999. Bat communities in a fragmented forest landscape on the south-west slopes of New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 88: 333-45.
Law, B.S. and Chidel, M. 2002. Tracks and riparian zones facilitate the use of Australian regrowth forest by insectivorous bats. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 605-17.
Law B. and Chidel M. 2006. Eucalypt plantings on farms: use by insectivorous bats. Biological Conservation 133: 236-49.
Law, B.S. and Lean, M., 1999. Blossom bats Syconycteris australis as pollinators in fragmented rainforests of the Atherton Tablelands, Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 91: 201-12.
Law, B.S., Reinhold, L., and Pennay, M., 2002. Geographic variation in the echolocation calls of Vespadelus spp. (Vespertilionidae) from New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. Acta Chiropterologia 4: 201-15.
Lawrence, W.F. 1991. Ecological correlates of extinction proneness in Australian tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 5: 79-89.
Lloyd A., Law B. and Goldingay R. 2006. Bat activity on riparian zones and upper slopes in Australian timber production forests and the effectiveness of riparian buffers. Biological Conservation 129: 207-220.
Lumsden, L.F., Bennett, A.F. and Sillins, J.E. 2002. Location of roosts of the lesser long-eared bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi and Gould's wattled bat Chalinolobus gouldii in a fragmented landscape in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 106(2): 237-249
Lumsden, L.F. and Bennett, A. F. 2005. Scattered trees in rural landscapes: foraging habitat for insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 122(2): 205-222.
Lunney D., Law B. and Baverstock P. 1996b. Towards a national bat research strategy for Australia: pointers arising from a survey of participants at the Sixth National Bat Conference. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 206-11.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996a. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Fisher, D., Ayers, D. and Dickman, C. R. 1997. The ecological attributes of the threatened fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 13-26.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Cogger, H. and Dickman, C. 2004. The neglected 74% - the non-threatened vertebrates - and a reflection on the limitations of the process that fashioned the current schedules of threatened species in New South Wales. Pp 145-157 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act?, edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney, and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Lunney, D., Law, B., Schulz, M. and Pennay. M. 2011a. Turning the spotlight onto the conservation of Australian bats and the extinction of the Christmas Island Pipistrelle. Pp 475-498 in The Biology and Conservation of Australasian Bats, edited by B. Law, P. Eby, D. Lunney and L. Lumsden. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Lunney, D., Parnaby, H., Pennay, M., Haering, R., Law, B., Eby, P., Schulz, M. and Turbill, C. 2011b. The Priorities Action Statement (PAS) for the threatened bats of New South Wales. Pp 340-356. in The Biology and Conservation of Australasian Bats, edited by B. Law, P. Eby, D. Lunney and L. Lumsden. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW, Australia.
Manel, S., Ceri Williams, H., Ormerod, S. J. 2001. Evaluating Presence-Absence models in ecology: the need to account for prevalence. Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 921-931.
McCarthy, M.A., Lindenmayer, D.B., Drechsler, M. 1997. Extinction debts and risks faced by abundant species. Conservation Biology 11: 221-226.
McKean, J. L. 1975. The bats of Lord Howe Island with the description of a new Nyctopholine bat. Australian Mammalogy 1: 329-332.
McKinney, M.L. 1997. Extinction vulnerability and selectivity: Combining ecological and paleontological views. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 495-516.
Molnar R.E., Hall L.S. and Mahoney J.A. 1984. New fossil localities for Macroderma Miller,1906 (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) in New South Wales and its past and present distribution in Australia. Australian Mammalogy 7: 63-73.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. 2006. NSW State of the Environment 2006. NSW Dept of Environment and Conservation: Sydney.
O'shea, T.J. and Bogan, M.A., (Eds.) 2003, Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: problems and prospects: U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Information and Technology Report, Springfield VA.
Parnaby H. 1992 An interim guide to identification of insectivorous bats of south-eastern Australia. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum No. 8. Australian Museum, Sydney.
Parnaby, H. 2009. A taxonomic review of Australian Greater Long-eared Bats previously known as Nyctophilus timoriensis(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and some associated taxa. Australian Zoologist 35: 39-81.
Pennay, M. 2006 Ecological study of the Endangered Bristle-nosed Bat Mormopterus ‘species 6’ and survey of microchiropteran bats in Gundabooka National Park. Report for NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Sydney.
Pennay, M., Law, B., Reinhold, L. 2004 Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to the echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.
Pennay, M. and Gosper, C. 2002 Brigalow Belt South Stage 2 Vertebrate Fauna Survey, Analysis and Modelling Projects. Resource and Conservation Division, Planning NSW. Sydney.
Piller, K.R., Henry, L. B. and Tipton, J. A. 2004. Decline of the Frecklebelly Madtom in the Pearl River Based on Contemporary and Historical Surveys. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 1004-1013.
Platanita, S. P. 1991. Fishes of the Rio Chama and upper Rio Grande, New Mexico, with preliminary comments on their longitudinal distribution. Southwest Naturalist 36: 186-193.
Ponder, W. F., Carter, G. A., Flemons, P. and Chapman, R. R. 2001. Evaluation of Museum Collection Data for Use in Biodiversity Assessment. Conservation Biology 15 (3): 648-657
Racey, P. A. and Entwistle, A. C. 2003. Conservation Ecology, Bat Ecology. Edited by Kunz T.H & Fenton, M. B. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Pp. 680-743
Reardon, T., Adams, M., McKenzie, N. and Jenkins, P. 2008. A new species of Australian freetail bat Mormopterus eleryi sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and a taxonomic reappraisal of M. norfolkensis(Gray). Zootaxa 1875: 1-31.
Rodriguez, J.P. 2002. Range contraction in declining North American bird populations. Ecological Applications(12)1: 238-248.
Shaffer, B. H., Fisher, R. N., Davidson, C. 1998. The Role of Natural History Collections in Documenting Species Declines. Tree 13: 27-30.
Seaman, D. E. and Powell, R. A. 1996. An Evaluation of the Accuracy of Kernel Density Estimators for Home Range Analysis. Ecology77(7): 2075-2085.
Tidemann, C. and Woodside, D. 1978. A collapsible bat-trap and a comparison of results obtained with the trap and mist-nets. Australian Wildlife Research5, 355-362
Turbill, C., Lumsden, L.F., and Ford, G.I. 2008. South-eastern and Tasmanian Long-eared Bats. P 527-528 in Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. Editors, The Mammals of Australia, 3rd Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds) 2008 The Mammals of Australia(3rd edition). Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Wald, A., Wolfowitz, J. 1943. An exact test for randomness in the non-parametric case, based on serial correlation. Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 14: 378-388.
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