Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Understanding of the distribution and ecology of some Western Australian bats has advanced considerably in the last ten years, while knowledge of others remains basic. The state has one species listed in the highest conservation level under state legislation (Rhinonicteris aurantia), and one population of this species is listed in a Threatened category under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Six other species are included on the Department of Environment and Conservation's Priority Fauna Listing based on their known distribution and representation on conservation and threatened lands (Falsistrellus mackenziei, Hipposideros stenotis, Macroderma gigas, Mormopterus loriae cobourgiana, Nyctophilus major tor and Vespadelus douglasorum). These listings reflect mainly a lack of knowledge and perceived threat. Recent unpublished research on R. aurantia and M. gigas has provided much relevant information for assessing development proposals, mainly in the Pilbara where plans for iron and gold mines coincide with their habitat. There are several unresolved taxonomic issues in the fauna, and when these are resolved, the tally for the state might increase by up to two species from a total of 37. The impact of logging, mining and other disturbances involving forest clearing in the south west is largely unknown, but the first studies have been completed recently. The status of cave occupancy of bats in south west caves was recently assessed, and only five caves have persistent bat colonies of significant size. A series of studies on aerodynamics, foraging strategy and call design has added a new dimension to the understanding of WA bats. Surveys for bats based on acoustic recordings of echolocation calls have increased considerably, and either one of two approaches based on AnaBat equipment are undertaken. Keys are mostly unavailable for identifying WA bats from their echolocation calls, but measurements of echolocation parameters from regional bat surveys and keys from other parts of Australia provide a good basis for making identifications in many cases.

Adams, M., Reardon, T.R., Baverstock, P.R. and Watts, C.H.S. 1988. Electrophoretic resolution of species boundaries in Australian Microchiroptera. 4. The Molossidae (Chiroptera). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences41: 315-326.
Appleton, B.R., McKenzie, J.A. and Christidis, L. 2004. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the bent-wing bat complex Miniopterus schreibersii(Kuhl, 1817) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution31: 431-439.
Armstrong, K.N. 2000. Roost microclimates of the bat Rhinonicteris aurantius in a limestone cave in Geikie Gorge, Western Australia. Australian Mammalogy22: 69-70.
Armstrong, K.N. 2001. The roost habitat and distribution of the orange leaf-nosed bat, Rhinonicteris aurantius, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Wildlife Research28: 95-104.
Armstrong, K.N. 2002. Morphometric divergence among populations of Rhinonicteris aurantius(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology50: 649-669.
Armstrong, K.N. 2003. The bats that time forgot: the Orange Leaf-nosed Bat Rhinonicteris aurantius(Gray, 1845) (Microchiroptera: Hipposideridae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. PhD thesis, Department of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia.
Armstrong, K.N. 2005. A description and discussion of the penile morphology of Rhinonicteris aurantius(Gray, 1845) (Microchiroptera: Hipposideridae). Australian Mammalogy27: 161-167.
Armstrong, K.N. 2006a. Resolving the correct nomenclature of the orange leaf-nosed bat Rhinonicteris aurantia(Gray, 1845) (Hipposideridae). Australian Mammalogy28: 125-130.
Armstrong, K.N. 2006b. Phylogeographic structure in Rhinonicteris aurantia(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae): implications for conservation. Acta Chiropterologica8: 63-81.
Armstrong, K.N. and Anstee, S.D. 2000. The ghost bat in the Pilbara: 100 years on. Australian Mammalogy22: 93-101.
Armstrong, K.N., Brown, R. and Armstrong, P. 2005. The status of bat roosts in caves in the south west of Western Australia, with a focus on Quininup Lake Cave. Western Australian Naturalists25: 41-56.
Armstrong, K. and Reardon, T. 2006. Standardising common names of bats in Australia. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter26: 37-42.
Armstrong, K.N. and Coles, R.B. 2007. Echolocation call frequency differences between geographic isolates of Rhinonicteris aurantia(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae): implications of nasal chamber size. Journal of Mammalogy88: 94-104.
Armstrong, K.N. and Kitchener, D. 2008. Yellow-lipped Cave Bat Vespadelus douglasorum Pp. 564-565 in Mammals of Australia3rd edition, edited by S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan. Australian Museum, Sydney.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2001. Bat airframe design: flight performance, stability and control in relation to foraging ecology. Australian Journal of Zoology49: 235-261.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2002a. Differentiating Western Australian Nyctophilus(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) echolocation calls. Australian Mammalogy23: 89-93.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2002b. Scaling bat wingbeat frequency and amplitude. Journal of Experimental Biology205: 2615-2626.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2004. Bat flight-muscle mass: implications for foraging strategy. Australian Journal of Zoology52: 605-622.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2005. Seasonal range variation of Tadarida australis(Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Western Australia: the impact of enthalpy. Australian Journal of Zoology53: 145-156.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2007. Bat wing airfoil and planform structures relating to aerodynamic cleanliness. Australian Journal of Zoology55: 237-247.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2008. The pelage of bats (Chiroptera) and the presence of aerodynamic riblets: the effect on aerodynamic cleanliness. Zoology111: 279-286.
Burbidge, A.A, McKenzie, N.L., Brennan, K.E.C., Woinarski, J.C.Z., Dickman, C.R., Baynes, A., Gordon, G., Menkhorst, P.W. and Robinson, A.C. 2007. Conservation and status of Australia's terrestrial mammals. Australian Journal of Zoology56: 411-422.
Cardinal, B.R. and Cristidis, L. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology reveal three geographically distinct lineages of the large bentwing bat ( Miniopterus schreibersii) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology48: 1-19.
Chen, S.-F., Jones, G. and Rossiter, S.J. 2009. Determinants of echolocation call frequency variation in the Formosan lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus monoceros). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B276: 3901-3909.
Churchill, S.K. 2008 Australian bats.2nd ed. Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.
Conservation Commission of Western Australia 2004. Forest Management Plan 2004-2013. Conservation Commission of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.
Corben, C.(2007). The Flatness Display and the use of Fpz as an indicator of bat call frequency. URL: http://users.lmi.net/corben/antislope.htm
DEC 2007-. NatureMap: Mapping Western Australia's Biodiversity. Department of Environment and Conservation. URL: http://naturemap.dec.wa.gov.au/
DEC 2010 in press. Technical Guide - Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment. Department of Conservation and Environment, Perth, Western Australia.
DEWHA 2010a Rhinonicteris aurantia(Pilbara form). In: Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. URL: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=82790
DEWHA 2010b. Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened bats. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
Duncan, A., Baker, G.B. and Montgomery, N. (eds.). 1999. The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia, Canberra.
EPA 2006. Fire management in the Kimberley and other rangeland regions of Western Australia. Bulletin 1243. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth, Western Australia, December 2006.
Fullard, J.H., Koehler, C., Surlykke, A. and McKenzie, N.L. 1991. Echolocation ecology and flight morphology of insectivorous bats (Chiroptera) in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology39: 427-438.
Guillén, A., Juste, J.B. and Ibáñez, C. 2000. Variation in the frequency of the echolocation calls of Hipposideros ruber in the Gulf of Guinea: an exploration of the adaptive meaning of the constant frequency value in rhinolophoid CF bats. Journal of Evolutionary Biology13: 70-80.
Hall, L., Richards, G. McKenzie, N. and Dunlop, N. 1997. The importance of abandoned mines as habitat for bats Pp. 326-333 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hales and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Heatwole, H. 1987. Major components and distributions of the terrestrial fauna Pp. 101-135 in Fauna of Australia Volume 1A, edited by D.W. Walton. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Hosken, D., Bailey, W.J., O'shea, J. and Roberts, J.D. 1994. Localisation of insect calls by the bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): a laboratory study. Australian Journal of Zoology42: 177-184.
Hosken, D.J., O'shea, J.E. and Blackberry, M.A. 1996. Blood plasma concentrations of progesterone, sperm storage and sperm viability and fertility in Gould's wattled bat ( Chalinolobus gouldii). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility108: 171-177.
Hosken, D.J. and O'shea, J.E. 2001. Sperm production and immune function in two Australian bats, Chalinolobus morio and Nyctophilus geoffroyi. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution13: 173-180.
How, R.A., Cooper, N.K. and Bannister, J.L. 2001. Checklist of the mammals of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 63: 91-98.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org Downloaded on 15 March 2010.
Jones, G. and Barlow, K.E. 2004. Cryptic species of echolocating bats, Pp. 345-349 in Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kitchener, D.J. 1976 Eptesicus douglasi, a new vespertilionid bat from the Kimberley, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum4: 295-301.
Kitchener, D.J. 1980 Taphozous hilli sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae), a new sheath-tailed bat from Western Australia and Northern Territory. Records of the Western Australian Museum8: 161-169.
Kitchener, D.J., Caputi, N. and Jones, B. 1986. Revision of Australo-Papuan Pipistrellus and Falsistrellus(Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum12: 435-495.
Kitchener, D.J., Jones, B. and Caputi N. 1987. Revision of Australian Eptesicus(Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum13: 427-500.
Koopman, K.F. 1984. Taxonomic and distributional notes on tropical Australian bats. American Museum Novitates2778:1-48.
McKenzie, N.L. 1999. Yellow-lipped cave bat, P. 84 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N.L., Fontanini, L., Lindus, N.V., and Williams, M.R. 1995. Biological inventory of Koolan Island, Western Australia 2. Zoological notes. Records of the Western Australian Museum17: 249-266.
McKenzie, N., Coles, R., Hall, L., Richards, G., Toop, J. and Vardon, M. 1999b. Ghost bat, Pp. 47-48 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N., Armstrong, K. and Kendrick, P. 1999a. Pilbara leaf-nosed bat, Pp. 36-38 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N.L., Reardon, T. and Thomson, B. 1999c. Central long-eared bat, Pp. 60-61 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie N.L. and Muir W.P. 2000. Bats of the southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 61: 465-477.
McKenzie, N.L., and Burbidge, A.A. 2002. Mammals, Pp. 84-96 in Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assessment 2002, edited by P. Sattler and C. Creighton. National Land and Water Resources Audit, Canberra.
McKenzie N.L., Start A.N. and Bullen R.D. 2002. Foraging ecology and organisation of a desert bat fauna. Australian Journal of Zoology50: 529-548.
McKenzie N.L. and Bullen R.D. 2003. Identifying Little Sandy Desert bat species from their echolocation calls. Australian Mammalogy25: 73-80.
McKenzie, N.L. and Bullen, R.D. 2009. The echolocation calls, habitat relationships, foraging niches and communities of Pilbara microbats. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement78: 123-155.
Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M., and Lee, M.S.Y. 2006 Evolution and Biogeography of Australian Vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Milne, D.J. 2002 Key to the bat calls of the Top End of the Northern Territory. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Technical Report No. 71.
Olson, D.M. et al.2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: A new map of life on Earth. BioScience51: 933-938.
Parnaby, H.E. 2009. A taxonomic review of Australian Greater Long-eared Bats previously known as Nyctophilus timoriensis(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and some associated taxa. Australian Zoologist35: 39-81.
Pennay, M., Law, B. and Reinhold, L. 2004 Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to the echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.
Reardon, T. 1999. Nomenclature of Tadarida australis(Gray 1838). The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter12: 22-24.
Reardon, T. 2009. A note on the taxonomic treatment used in the second edition of Australian Bats by Sue Churchill 2008. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter32: 52-53.
Reardon, T., Adams, M., McKenzie, N. and Jenkins, P. 2008. A new species of Australian freetail bat Mormopterus eleryi sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and a taxonomic reappraisal of M. norfolkensis(Gray). Zootaxa1875: 1-31.
Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera, Pp 312-529 in Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd edition, edited by D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Susac, R.A.J. 2007. A literature review and report of karst biodiversity, palaeontology and hydrology in the Northern Agricultural Region, Western Australia. Unpublished report to the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation.
Tian, L., Liang, B., Maeda, K., Metzner, W. and Zhang, S. 2004. Molecular studies on the classification of Miniopterus schreibersii(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Folia Zoologica53: 303-311.
Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds.) 2008 The Mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Webala. P.W., Craig, M.D., Law, B.S., Armstrong, K.N., Wayne, A.F. and Bradley, J.S. submitted. Differential habitat use by bats in selectively-logged Jarrah forests, southwestern Australia.
Webala. P.W., Craig, M.D., Law, B.S., Wayne, A.F. and Bradley, J.S. in press. Roost site selection by Southern forest bat Vespadelus regulus and Gould's long-eared bat Nyctophilus gouldi in logged Jarrah forests, south-western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.022
Yoshino, H., Armstrong, K.N., Izawa, M., Yokoyama, J. and Kawata, M. 2008. Genetic and acoustic population structuring in the Okinawa Least Horseshoe Bat: are intercolony acoustic differences maintained by vertical maternal transmission? Molecular Ecology17: 4978-4991.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Data & Figures

References

Adams, M., Reardon, T.R., Baverstock, P.R. and Watts, C.H.S. 1988. Electrophoretic resolution of species boundaries in Australian Microchiroptera. 4. The Molossidae (Chiroptera). Australian Journal of Biological Sciences41: 315-326.
Appleton, B.R., McKenzie, J.A. and Christidis, L. 2004. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the bent-wing bat complex Miniopterus schreibersii(Kuhl, 1817) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution31: 431-439.
Armstrong, K.N. 2000. Roost microclimates of the bat Rhinonicteris aurantius in a limestone cave in Geikie Gorge, Western Australia. Australian Mammalogy22: 69-70.
Armstrong, K.N. 2001. The roost habitat and distribution of the orange leaf-nosed bat, Rhinonicteris aurantius, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Wildlife Research28: 95-104.
Armstrong, K.N. 2002. Morphometric divergence among populations of Rhinonicteris aurantius(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology50: 649-669.
Armstrong, K.N. 2003. The bats that time forgot: the Orange Leaf-nosed Bat Rhinonicteris aurantius(Gray, 1845) (Microchiroptera: Hipposideridae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. PhD thesis, Department of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia.
Armstrong, K.N. 2005. A description and discussion of the penile morphology of Rhinonicteris aurantius(Gray, 1845) (Microchiroptera: Hipposideridae). Australian Mammalogy27: 161-167.
Armstrong, K.N. 2006a. Resolving the correct nomenclature of the orange leaf-nosed bat Rhinonicteris aurantia(Gray, 1845) (Hipposideridae). Australian Mammalogy28: 125-130.
Armstrong, K.N. 2006b. Phylogeographic structure in Rhinonicteris aurantia(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae): implications for conservation. Acta Chiropterologica8: 63-81.
Armstrong, K.N. and Anstee, S.D. 2000. The ghost bat in the Pilbara: 100 years on. Australian Mammalogy22: 93-101.
Armstrong, K.N., Brown, R. and Armstrong, P. 2005. The status of bat roosts in caves in the south west of Western Australia, with a focus on Quininup Lake Cave. Western Australian Naturalists25: 41-56.
Armstrong, K. and Reardon, T. 2006. Standardising common names of bats in Australia. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter26: 37-42.
Armstrong, K.N. and Coles, R.B. 2007. Echolocation call frequency differences between geographic isolates of Rhinonicteris aurantia(Chiroptera: Hipposideridae): implications of nasal chamber size. Journal of Mammalogy88: 94-104.
Armstrong, K.N. and Kitchener, D. 2008. Yellow-lipped Cave Bat Vespadelus douglasorum Pp. 564-565 in Mammals of Australia3rd edition, edited by S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan. Australian Museum, Sydney.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2001. Bat airframe design: flight performance, stability and control in relation to foraging ecology. Australian Journal of Zoology49: 235-261.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2002a. Differentiating Western Australian Nyctophilus(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) echolocation calls. Australian Mammalogy23: 89-93.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2002b. Scaling bat wingbeat frequency and amplitude. Journal of Experimental Biology205: 2615-2626.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2004. Bat flight-muscle mass: implications for foraging strategy. Australian Journal of Zoology52: 605-622.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2005. Seasonal range variation of Tadarida australis(Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Western Australia: the impact of enthalpy. Australian Journal of Zoology53: 145-156.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2007. Bat wing airfoil and planform structures relating to aerodynamic cleanliness. Australian Journal of Zoology55: 237-247.
Bullen R.D. and McKenzie N.L. 2008. The pelage of bats (Chiroptera) and the presence of aerodynamic riblets: the effect on aerodynamic cleanliness. Zoology111: 279-286.
Burbidge, A.A, McKenzie, N.L., Brennan, K.E.C., Woinarski, J.C.Z., Dickman, C.R., Baynes, A., Gordon, G., Menkhorst, P.W. and Robinson, A.C. 2007. Conservation and status of Australia's terrestrial mammals. Australian Journal of Zoology56: 411-422.
Cardinal, B.R. and Cristidis, L. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA and morphology reveal three geographically distinct lineages of the large bentwing bat ( Miniopterus schreibersii) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology48: 1-19.
Chen, S.-F., Jones, G. and Rossiter, S.J. 2009. Determinants of echolocation call frequency variation in the Formosan lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus monoceros). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B276: 3901-3909.
Churchill, S.K. 2008 Australian bats.2nd ed. Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.
Conservation Commission of Western Australia 2004. Forest Management Plan 2004-2013. Conservation Commission of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.
Corben, C.(2007). The Flatness Display and the use of Fpz as an indicator of bat call frequency. URL: http://users.lmi.net/corben/antislope.htm
DEC 2007-. NatureMap: Mapping Western Australia's Biodiversity. Department of Environment and Conservation. URL: http://naturemap.dec.wa.gov.au/
DEC 2010 in press. Technical Guide - Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment. Department of Conservation and Environment, Perth, Western Australia.
DEWHA 2010a Rhinonicteris aurantia(Pilbara form). In: Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. URL: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=82790
DEWHA 2010b. Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened bats. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra.
Duncan, A., Baker, G.B. and Montgomery, N. (eds.). 1999. The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia, Canberra.
EPA 2006. Fire management in the Kimberley and other rangeland regions of Western Australia. Bulletin 1243. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth, Western Australia, December 2006.
Fullard, J.H., Koehler, C., Surlykke, A. and McKenzie, N.L. 1991. Echolocation ecology and flight morphology of insectivorous bats (Chiroptera) in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology39: 427-438.
Guillén, A., Juste, J.B. and Ibáñez, C. 2000. Variation in the frequency of the echolocation calls of Hipposideros ruber in the Gulf of Guinea: an exploration of the adaptive meaning of the constant frequency value in rhinolophoid CF bats. Journal of Evolutionary Biology13: 70-80.
Hall, L., Richards, G. McKenzie, N. and Dunlop, N. 1997. The importance of abandoned mines as habitat for bats Pp. 326-333 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hales and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Heatwole, H. 1987. Major components and distributions of the terrestrial fauna Pp. 101-135 in Fauna of Australia Volume 1A, edited by D.W. Walton. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Hosken, D., Bailey, W.J., O'shea, J. and Roberts, J.D. 1994. Localisation of insect calls by the bat Nyctophilus geoffroyi(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): a laboratory study. Australian Journal of Zoology42: 177-184.
Hosken, D.J., O'shea, J.E. and Blackberry, M.A. 1996. Blood plasma concentrations of progesterone, sperm storage and sperm viability and fertility in Gould's wattled bat ( Chalinolobus gouldii). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility108: 171-177.
Hosken, D.J. and O'shea, J.E. 2001. Sperm production and immune function in two Australian bats, Chalinolobus morio and Nyctophilus geoffroyi. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution13: 173-180.
How, R.A., Cooper, N.K. and Bannister, J.L. 2001. Checklist of the mammals of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 63: 91-98.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. URL: http://www.iucnredlist.org Downloaded on 15 March 2010.
Jones, G. and Barlow, K.E. 2004. Cryptic species of echolocating bats, Pp. 345-349 in Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins, edited by J.A. Thomas, C.F. Moss and M. Vater. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Kitchener, D.J. 1976 Eptesicus douglasi, a new vespertilionid bat from the Kimberley, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum4: 295-301.
Kitchener, D.J. 1980 Taphozous hilli sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae), a new sheath-tailed bat from Western Australia and Northern Territory. Records of the Western Australian Museum8: 161-169.
Kitchener, D.J., Caputi, N. and Jones, B. 1986. Revision of Australo-Papuan Pipistrellus and Falsistrellus(Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum12: 435-495.
Kitchener, D.J., Jones, B. and Caputi N. 1987. Revision of Australian Eptesicus(Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum13: 427-500.
Koopman, K.F. 1984. Taxonomic and distributional notes on tropical Australian bats. American Museum Novitates2778:1-48.
McKenzie, N.L. 1999. Yellow-lipped cave bat, P. 84 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N.L., Fontanini, L., Lindus, N.V., and Williams, M.R. 1995. Biological inventory of Koolan Island, Western Australia 2. Zoological notes. Records of the Western Australian Museum17: 249-266.
McKenzie, N., Coles, R., Hall, L., Richards, G., Toop, J. and Vardon, M. 1999b. Ghost bat, Pp. 47-48 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N., Armstrong, K. and Kendrick, P. 1999a. Pilbara leaf-nosed bat, Pp. 36-38 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie, N.L., Reardon, T. and Thomson, B. 1999c. Central long-eared bat, Pp. 60-61 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats, edited by A. Duncan, G.B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
McKenzie N.L. and Muir W.P. 2000. Bats of the southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 61: 465-477.
McKenzie, N.L., and Burbidge, A.A. 2002. Mammals, Pp. 84-96 in Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assessment 2002, edited by P. Sattler and C. Creighton. National Land and Water Resources Audit, Canberra.
McKenzie N.L., Start A.N. and Bullen R.D. 2002. Foraging ecology and organisation of a desert bat fauna. Australian Journal of Zoology50: 529-548.
McKenzie N.L. and Bullen R.D. 2003. Identifying Little Sandy Desert bat species from their echolocation calls. Australian Mammalogy25: 73-80.
McKenzie, N.L. and Bullen, R.D. 2009. The echolocation calls, habitat relationships, foraging niches and communities of Pilbara microbats. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement78: 123-155.
Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M., and Lee, M.S.Y. 2006 Evolution and Biogeography of Australian Vertebrates. Auscipub Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Milne, D.J. 2002 Key to the bat calls of the Top End of the Northern Territory. Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Technical Report No. 71.
Olson, D.M. et al.2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: A new map of life on Earth. BioScience51: 933-938.
Parnaby, H.E. 2009. A taxonomic review of Australian Greater Long-eared Bats previously known as Nyctophilus timoriensis(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and some associated taxa. Australian Zoologist35: 39-81.
Pennay, M., Law, B. and Reinhold, L. 2004 Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to the echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.
Reardon, T. 1999. Nomenclature of Tadarida australis(Gray 1838). The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter12: 22-24.
Reardon, T. 2009. A note on the taxonomic treatment used in the second edition of Australian Bats by Sue Churchill 2008. The Australasian Bat Society Newsletter32: 52-53.
Reardon, T., Adams, M., McKenzie, N. and Jenkins, P. 2008. A new species of Australian freetail bat Mormopterus eleryi sp. nov. (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and a taxonomic reappraisal of M. norfolkensis(Gray). Zootaxa1875: 1-31.
Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera, Pp 312-529 in Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd edition, edited by D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Susac, R.A.J. 2007. A literature review and report of karst biodiversity, palaeontology and hydrology in the Northern Agricultural Region, Western Australia. Unpublished report to the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation.
Tian, L., Liang, B., Maeda, K., Metzner, W. and Zhang, S. 2004. Molecular studies on the classification of Miniopterus schreibersii(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Folia Zoologica53: 303-311.
Van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds.) 2008 The Mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Webala. P.W., Craig, M.D., Law, B.S., Armstrong, K.N., Wayne, A.F. and Bradley, J.S. submitted. Differential habitat use by bats in selectively-logged Jarrah forests, southwestern Australia.
Webala. P.W., Craig, M.D., Law, B.S., Wayne, A.F. and Bradley, J.S. in press. Roost site selection by Southern forest bat Vespadelus regulus and Gould's long-eared bat Nyctophilus gouldi in logged Jarrah forests, south-western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.08.022
Yoshino, H., Armstrong, K.N., Izawa, M., Yokoyama, J. and Kawata, M. 2008. Genetic and acoustic population structuring in the Okinawa Least Horseshoe Bat: are intercolony acoustic differences maintained by vertical maternal transmission? Molecular Ecology17: 4978-4991.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal