ABSTRACT Interactions between dingoes and domestic dogs in Australia have implications for disease spread, but to understand the potential impact, better knowledge of the nature of this dingo-domestic dog interface is needed. Driven by a need to assess the risk of a rabies incursion in northern Australia and its likely impact, a field research program was initiated in 2012, focused on the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) of Cape York, Queensland. There is scant information available on how and under what circumstances dingoes interact with domestic dogs, which is a gap in disease preparedness and response, and studies have been conducted on both domestic dogs and dingoes in this area. Here we describe one study that used camera-trap data to assess fixed and variable characteristics of NPA dingo populations. Because of the dingo-domestic dog interface and hybridisation in the NPA, we hypothesised that some dingo-type dogs might exhibit domestic dog traits. During 12 months of monitoring, 24 phenotypically-based dingo- type dogs were identified. Seven of these that were studied in more detail exhibited both dingo-like and domestic dog-like traits. Activity was concentrated at an unofficial waste site and mostly at night, and interactions between these seven dingo-like dogs were observed. Although interactions between this subset of highly active dingoes and domestic dogs were not observed, two such interactions were observed within the larger group of dingoes. Whilst this study provides baseline information about the role that the dingo-domestic dog interface could play in disease spread – such as in the event of a rabies incursion – it is a snapshot in a single region. To inform disease surveillance, control and management plans, multidisciplinary research involving ecologists, epidemiologists and veterinarians, together with indigenous communities, is needed to further define the dingo-domestic dog interface in Australia.
ABSTRACT In Australia, the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) is a significant pest species because it dominates fish communities in numerous catchment areas. In 2016, Australia launched a national control plan based on the use of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) to reduce carp densities. CyHV3 is exotic to Australia and is listed as by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) due to its substantial impact on global aquaculture production. Infection with CyHV3 causes koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), a high mortality disease in common carp affecting all age classes of both wild and farmed fish. The objective of this review was to consider the current knowledge of CyHV3 transmission factors and discuss the potential for recurring epidemic-level mortality events in carp found in Australia. Case studies were presented comparing KHVD outbreaks in wild carp in Japan and Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) outbreaks in pest redfin perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.) in Australia. The release of CyHV3 in thermally-favourable waterways in Australia would undoubtedly cause one high mortality KHVD epidemic. However, there is little evidence to suggest that repeated CyHV3 outbreaks would recur at a magnitude to counter the reproductive potential of the surviving carp.