A survey of all known Spectacled Flying Fox camps in the wet tropics was undertaken in March 1998 with the assistance of volunteers. About 153 000 flying foxes were counted at 12 major camps. These data are compared with historical data and the status of the species in Australia is discussed. The imperative for conservation management of the Spectacled Flying Fox is emphasized regardless of its official conservation status, particularly in relation to seed dispersal and pollination of rainforest plants. The most important component of this management must be the development of non-lethal deterrence at orchards followed by the development of methods for countering tick paralysis. Further annual censuses will be necessary to monitor population trends in comparison with me current baseline. This initial census was conducted as part of an integrated approach to Spectacled Flying Fox management by fruit growers, researchers, conservation groups and the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.