Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to the Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences.



Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  • Write your article in English.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single MSWord file.
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Include line numbers on initial submission
  • Font:
  • Main Body—12 pt. Times New Roman
  • Footnotes—10 pt. Times New Roman
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures (tif, .jpg, .png or .psd formats, minimum 300 dpi) imbedded in the document.
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
  • The sequence of material is:
    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
    • Literature Cited
    • Tables
    • Figure Legends
    • Figures
    • Appendices (numbered with Roman Numerals)

Do not use subheadings.

For Research notes do not use headings and there is no abstract.

Title Page

The full title of the manuscript in 20 words or less. If applicable, the geographical location of the research should be referenced along with the full name of any particular focal species (authority credited with naming the species usually should not appear as part of the title). Authors’ names appear directly under the title. Authors’ addresses appear directly under the list of names. Include a running title (eight word limit) followed by key words. Finally, include the email address of the corresponding author. If more than one author, add the corresponding author at the bottom of the title page (see example below) Also include key words. Title page should follow the following format:

The Organisms Living Around Energized Submarine Power Cables, Pipe, and Natural Sea Floor in the Inshore Waters of Southern California

Milton S. Love,1* Mary M. Nishimoto,1Scott Clark1 ,Merit McCrea1, and

Ann Scarborough Bull2

1 Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106

2 Bureau of Offshore Energy Management, 770 Paseo Camarillo, Camarillo, CA 93010

Running Title: Submarine Power Cable

Key Words: EMF, electromagnetic fields, renewable energy

*Corresponding author:

Additional Mandatory Requirements

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification
Indent all paragraphs with a tab. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.
Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Left Justify all text and legends (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented).
Use one space between sentences.
Common and scientific names when listed together are offset by commas.

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided. Spelling, word division and geographical names should follow either the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English or the Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well. Proper paragraph format must be followed. We do not accept 1, 2 and 3 sentence paragraphs.

Use the active voice

Article Length
A feature article comprises approximately five to thirty typewritten pages. A research note is usually one to six typewritten pages.

Colored Text
Set the font color to black for the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible. Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.) If you use a reference program, save a clean version of the Word document that is not linked.

Emphazised Text
Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is not allowed.

Font Faces
Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times New Roman.

Font Size
The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Footnotes are 10 pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 8 pt.

Foreign Terms
Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text. Section headings (introduction, methods, results, discussion and conclusions, acknowledgements, literature cited, Appendices) are centered. Avoid the use of subsection headings. Subsection headings are left justified and italicized and can only be used if approved by the Editor. There is no heading for the abstract. Start the abstract as follows:
Abstract-Your Text…
There is no heading for the Introduction, instead use a line consisting of 12 underscores.

Main Text
The font for the main body of text must be black and in Times New Roman.

Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined. This does not include the Literature Cited (see below).

Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times New Roman, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. Use the Footnote function to insert the footnotes, do not manually insert footnotes.

Tables and Figures

Tables should not repeat data in figures (line drawings, graphs, or photographs) or contained in the text. The author must provide numbers and short legend for tables and figures and place reference to each of them in the text. Illustrations and lettering thereon should be of sufficient size and clarity to permit reduction to standard page size; ordinarily they should not exceed 8 ½ by 11 inches in size and after final reduction lettering must equal or exceed the size of the typeset. Figure resolution should be a minimum of 300 dpi in a .tif, .jpg, .png or .psd format. Do not insert tables as a picture file.

Digital copies of tables and figures should appear sequentially (tables first) at the end of the document. Each table and figure with legend must fit on a single page. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view. Number all tables and figures in the order in which they appear and they must be referenced in the manuscript. Tables should be formatted with a double line on top, a single line under the column headers and a single line on the bottom. Figure citations are abbreviated: (Fig. 1) and Fig. 1. Do not use the following format (see Fig. 1).

Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also, expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.

Numbers one through nine should be spelled out when not associate with units of measure.
Common abbreviations and symbols such as %, mm, m, g, ml, mg, ºC, µm, d (day), hr (hour), yr (year), sec (seconds) weeks (wks) months (mos) and so forth, should be used. A space is included before or after a symbol (i.e. 10 m, p = 0.01). Place <, >, ≤, ≥ next to the number when not in an equation (i.e., >2 °C)
Use superscript and subscript when necessary (i.e., cm2 or CO 2)

Only use metric measures. If desired, place English measures in parentheses after the metric equivalents.

Other common symbols include: ≤ ≥ ± ≠ ≅ ≈ ∞ ‰ α

Dates: Use the following format for dates: 23 December 2016

Coordinates: For coordinates use either Degrees, Minutes, Seconds (i.e., 38° 53′ 23″ N, 77° 00′ 32″ W) or Decimal Degrees (i.e., 38.88970°, -77.00890°).

Literature Cited
It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. All literature referenced in the text must be included in the Literature Cited section and vice versa. Authors are responsible for the completion and accuracy of the Literature Cited. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break—not a page break—and begin your Literature Cited on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page if possible. Each reference should give the last names of all the authors, their first names or first initials, and, optionally, their middle initials. The hierarchy for ordering the references is alphabetical by senior author’s last name.

We do not accept gray literature, websites or any non-peer reviewed publications. If you need to include this type of information it must be in a footnote and in your letter to the editor, there must be an explanation as to why there is not a proper citation and why it is essential for the manuscript.

The information to be given with each citation in the Literature Cited is as follows:

Articles in traditional journals:
Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of article, name of journal, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), volume number, page numbers. Use a hanging indent (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount). Do not include spaces between abbreviated names. Journal abbreviations can be found using the Web of Science. Use acronyms for commonly reference journals (i.d PNAS, MEPS, TREE, BSCAS etc.) Entries should take the following form:

Holmes, T. Jr., and S. Speak. 1971. Reproductive biology of Myotis lucifugus. J. Mamm.,

Do not include DOIs. If an article is not sequentially page numbered include the article number in the following form:

Pringle, J., and E.P. Dever. 2009. Dynamics of wind-driven upwelling and relaxation between
Monterey Bay and Point Arena: Local-, regional-, and gyre-scale controls. J. Geophys.
Res., 114(C7):C07003.

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of book, year of publication, publisher, edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication. Entries should take the following form:

McWilliams, K.L. 1970. Insect mimicry. Academic Press, vii+326 pp.

Chapters in books, collections or anthologies:
Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter, name(s) of editor(s) of book, title of chapter, title of book, year of publication, publisher, and edition (if not first). For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication. Entries should take the following form:

Brattstrom, B.H. 1969. The Condor in California. Pp. 369-382 in Vertebrates of California. (S.E.
Payne, ed.) Univ. California Press, xii+635 pp.

Electronic Books or Monographs:
In addition to the information above include the: availability information and date of access.

McLeod, A.I. 2011. Kendall: Kendall rank correlation and Mann-Kendall trend test. R package
version 2.2., 19 May 2022.

When works by the same author are listed in a row, use — instead of writing the name again. Hence, one might have

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations, . . .

—. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, . . .

Similarly, instead of repeating two names use

"— and —."

For instance,

Edlin, A. and S. Reichelstein (1995) . . .

— and — (1996) . . .

Within the text of your manuscript, use the author-date method of citation. For instance,

"As noted by Smith (1776)."

When there are two authors, use both last names. For instance,

"Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) claim . . . "

If there are three or more authors give the last name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a 1987 work by Abel, Baker, and Charley, would be cited as

"Abel et al. (1987)."

If two or more cited works share the same authors and dates, use "a," "b," and so on to distinguish among them. For instance,

"Jones (1994b) provides a more general analysis of the model introduced in Example 3 of Jones (1994a)."

After the first cite in the text using the author-date method, subsequent cites can use just the last names if that would be unambiguous. For example, Edlin and Reichelstein (1996) can be followed by just Edlin and Reichelstein provided no other Edlin and Reichelstein article is referenced; if one is, then the date must always be attached.

When citations appear within parentheses, use semicolons to separate them. For instance,

" ...(Smith 1776; Jones and Allen 2000; Young et al. 2006)."

Personal communications are cited within the text using the following format (J. Keeley pers. comm. 2018)

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal