Spatial heterogeneity and multifunctionality are closely linked concepts: spatial variations in productive potential or in accessibility have lead to diverse uses, which, in turn, will shape diverse environments. Mountain forests have been shaped by centuries of steady use and risk being banalized today because of a rapid decline in the implementation of traditional practices. A policy for a local sustainable development, based on the multifunctionality of forested areas, should, thus, encourage specialization on appropriate sites of limited area to guarantee global multifunctionality on a regional scale.

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