Kyrgyzstan, which is a mountainous and rather poor country,owns significant resources from the ecological point of view. Only 4% of the country are covered by forests. Walnut-fruit and other fruit forests occur on the slopes north and north-east of the Ferghana valley. The management of these forests can't be held for a sustainable one. Taking into consideration the significant political, social and economic upheavals which affected the land during the 20th century, one can be sceptical about the population's ability to manage the forests in a sound way. In the fact, walnut-fruit forests are multifunctional. The production is very diversified (walnut, apples, berries, honey,fodder, timber, firewood, etc.). However, the processing units collapsed with the fall of the Soviet system. Forest planning and management, which is headed by the State as sole forest owner, hasn't been very participatory yet and is hardly in keeping with an agroforestry, that means a multifunctional approach. A reflection is proposed in order to promote a sustainable management of the forests to the benefit of the population.

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