Phenology studies the seasonally recurring growth and development of living creatures and abiotic phenomenon. It deals with observing the dates of plant developmental phases (from leafing to leaf fall), of bird migrations(arrival and takeoff of migratory birds), or frost occurrence and freezing of water courses and other phenomenon. Plant phenology is well suited as an indicator for bio-monitoring of environmental changes, such as actual climate warming, as organisms reflect the integrated reaction to the environment. In Switzerland Meteo-Swiss has run a national phenological observation network since 1951 that includes all regions and altitudinal belts, while a whole range of special networks operate for specific objectives: for example work in schools. The international and global cooperation in phenology starts gradually. In Europe, actively working groups prepare a standardization of observations and a central pool base for the observation data. At the moment, phenology serves above all as an indicator for the influence of climate warming on vegetation, but is also applied to frost warnings, pollen forecasts or for the optimization of plant protection in agriculture.

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