In this essay, the “efficiency” and “innovation” approaches to the reduction of foreseeable shortages of resources in the timber industry are critically considered. Efficiency gains and the resultant price reductions have led and still lead to an increase in consumption, whereby the savings achieved by the efficient use of resources are reduced (rebound effect) or even completely eaten up (backfire effect). Innovations also often result in increased use, as can be seen in the case of energy consumption. Two alternative conceptual and procedural approaches are presented in contrast to the concepts of efficiency and innovation: the consistency concept requires thought and action in cycles and the use of materials which fit in best with the natural cycles. The sufficiency concept envisages a reduction in the use of resources by means of the frugality of each individual. Humans as consumers are invited to consider critically and honestly their own lifestyle and their role in the current economic system.

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