Abstract

Compared with photon stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans that may have to use many more penetrating x-ray beams for each isocenter, proton SBRT with ultrahypofractionated doses use fewer beam angles and offer significantly reduced low-dose radiation bath to normal liver tissue. We demonstrate techniques to deliver safe and effective proton SBRT, where planning and organ motion complexity further increased with multiple liver lesions. For treatment planning, we recommend robust and logical beam angles, avoiding devices and encouraging entry perpendicular to the dominant motion, as well as volumetric repainting to mitigate the interplay effect to clinically acceptable levels. This report highlights the significant technical challenges with ultrahypofractionated proton pencil beam scanning liver therapy, how they are managed, and the effectiveness of this treatment.

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