Abstract

Purpose

To assess acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) targeting the prostate/seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes for prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods

A prospective study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02874014), evaluating moderately hypofractionated IMPT for high-risk or unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer, accrued a target sample size of 56 patients. The prostate/seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes were treated simultaneously with 6750 and 4500 centigray radiobiologic equivalent (cGyRBE), respectively, in 25 daily fractions. All received androgen-deprivation therapy. Acute GI and GU toxicities were prospectively assessed from 7 GI and 9 GU categories of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and 3-month after radiotherapy. Fisher exact tests were used for comparisons of categorical data.

Results

Median age was 75 years. Median follow-up was 25 months. Fifty-five patients were available for acute toxicity assessment. Sixty-two percent and 2%, respectively, experienced acute grade 1 and 2 GI toxicity. Grade 2 GI toxicity was proctitis. Sixty-five percent and 35%, respectively, had acute grade 1 and 2 GU toxicity. The 3 most frequent grade 2 GU toxicities were urinary frequency, urgency, and obstructive symptoms. None had acute grade ≥ 3 GI or GU toxicity. The presence of baseline GI and GU symptoms was associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing acute GI and GU toxicity, respectively. Of 45 patients with baseline GU symptoms, 44% experienced acute grade 2 GU toxicity, compared with only 10% among 10 with no baseline GU symptoms (P = 0.07). Although acute grade 1 and 2 GI and GU toxicities were common during radiotherapy, most resolved at 3 months after radiotherapy.

Conclusion

A moderately hypofractionated IMPT targeting the prostate/seminal vesicles and regional pelvic lymph nodes was well tolerated with no acute grade ≥ 3 GI or GU toxicity. Patients with baseline GU symptoms had a higher rate of acute grade 2 GU toxicity.

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