Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke affect women differently across race and ethnicity. Cultural, educational, and economic disparities further complicate prevention efforts such as screening and risk factor management, diagnosis and treatment selection, and patient compliance and cooperation. Hispanic women are likely to develop heart disease 10 years earlier than white women. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for Hispanic and black women, responsible for nearly 21,000 and 48,000 deaths per year, respectively. Only 34% of Hispanic women know that heart disease is their greatest health risk. Hispanic women are least likely among all women to have a regular healthcare source, and only 1 in 8 says that her doctor has ever discussed the risk of heart disease. Only 36% of black women know that heart disease is their greatest health risk. Of black women at least 20 years of age, 48.3% have CVD; however, only 14% believe that CVD is their greatest health problem. Only about 50% of black women are aware of the signs and symptoms of a heart attack. In American Indian, Native Alaskan, Asian, and Pacific Island women, heart disease trails only cancer as the chief cause of death. More women than men die of CVD each year, and 64% of them have no previous symptoms.

Educational Objectives

After this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Cite and identify cardiac risk factors in women.

  • Review and clarify current guidelines for prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of heart disease and stroke in women.

  • Discuss and clarify cardiovascular risk stratification of female patients, which will be used to guide preventive treatment.

  • Discuss and implement current and new diagnostic tools and treatments, and develop reliable diagnostic techniques.

  • Discuss challenges of health care related to cardiovascular treatment and research in women.

  • Review treatment and health promotion activities that typically require action from the combined efforts of clinicians, the full healthcare team, and the system in which health care is delivered, as well as patients.

Target Audience

Medical personnel who provide primary care for women, including obstetricians/gynecologists, internal medicine physicians, family practitioners, endocrinologists, nurses and nurse practitioners, and support staff.


Texas Heart Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation

Texas Heart Institute designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 7 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The articles marked with a ★ are designated for CME credit.

Term of Approval

October 1, 2018, through October 1, 2019.

Disclosure of Financial Relationships with Commercial Interests

The following individuals have reported no interest or other relationship(s) with companies that may relate to the educational content of this activity:

  • Anne L. Abbott, PhD, FRACP

  • Faisal Cheema, MD

  • Daoud Daoud, MD

  • Aloke V. Finn, MD

  • R. David Fish, MD

  • Eduardo Hernandez-Vila, MD

  • Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, MD

  • Zvonimir Krajcer, MD

  • Gabriel Loor, MD

  • Ali J. Marian, MD

  • Michael J. McArdle, MD

  • Michael A. Millard, MD

  • Jeffrey A. Morgan, MD

  • Tina Shah, MD, FACC

  • Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD

  • Renu Virmani, MD

The Planning Committee members have nothing to disclose.

The THI CME Staff have nothing to disclose.

The Program Reviewers have nothing to disclose.

Repurposing Statement

If you previously completed and received credit for the live CME-accredited symposium titled 8th Annual Women's Heart & Vascular Symposium: Emerging Strategies to Impact Women's Health and Longevity on 20 January 2018, please note that you will not receive credit for completing this activity. Participants who take part in an identical activity, even to validate learning or to clarify specific topics, cannot claim, nor will the Texas Heart Institute award, duplicate credit for the activity.

Method of Participation and Receipt of CME Certificate

To obtain CME credit for the 8th Annual Women's Heart & Vascular Symposium, Texas Heart Institute Journal section, you must:

  1. Carefully read the CME-designated articles marked with a ★ in this issue of the Journal.

  2. Answer the assessment questions presented on page 246. A grade of 80% must be attained to receive CME credit.

  3. Complete a brief evaluation.

  4. Claim your CME credit by mailing the completed assessment and evaluation to:

    THI Office of CME, 6770 Bertner Ave., MC 3-276, Houston, TX 77030

  5. The THI Office of CME will grade the assessment, and, if the score is 80% or higher, a certificate indicating the number of credits/contact hours earned for participation in the program will be mailed to you at the address you provide.


For assistance or feedback on this activity, please contact the Texas Heart Institute Office of CME by telephone (832-355-9100) or by e-mail (cme@texasheart.org).