Throughout the world, heart and vascular disease are the #1 killers of men, women, and children. Over the last 30 years, more women than men have died each year of heart disease, and the gap between survival of men and women continues to widen. Experts estimate that one in 3 women will die of heart disease or stroke, compared with one in 31 women who will die of breast cancer.

In a recent survey, scientists interviewed women from 25 to 60 years of age across the United States, and only half of them knew that heart disease is the leading threat to women's lives. Women still believe breast cancer to be more prevalent than stroke, and 40% of women said that they were only “somewhat” or “not at all” concerned about experiencing a stroke in their life. Yet every year in the U.S., about 40,000 women die of breast cancer, according to Centers for Disease Control statistics, whereas roughly 10 times that number die of heart disease.

During the past decade, physicians and scientists have worked diligently to find ways to combat the various physiologic and behavioral risk factors and the genetic alterations associated with cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, far too few are advised of heart risk, and the same survey showed that only 16% reported having been told by a doctor that they have or are at risk of heart disease.

Current information on the status and future directions of cardiovascular medicine and surgery are included in this activity. The faculty highlight recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease and stroke, as well as new therapeutic methods.

Educational Objectives

At the conclusion of this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Describe sex differences in patients' presentation of cardiovascular disease

  • Identify risk factors and prevention techniques

  • Discuss a cardiovascular evaluation tool and its impact on identifying cardiovascular risk

  • Evaluate novel drug and device therapies for cardiovascular disease

  • Recognize methods of stroke prevention, as well as surgical and interventional techniques for treating heart and cardiovascular disease

Target Audience

Cardiologists, gynecologists, primary care physicians, internal medicine physicians, family medicine practitioners, endocrinologists, and nurse practitioners.


Texas Heart Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation

Texas Heart Institute designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The articles marked with ★ are designated for CME credit.

Term of Approval

August 1, 2016, through August 1, 2018.

Disclosure of Financial Relationships with Commercial Interests

The following individuals have reported no interest or other relationship(s) with companies that might relate to the educational content of this activity:

  • Karla Campos, MD

  • Stephanie A. Coulter, MD

  • Robert W. Godley, MD

  • Eduardo Hernandez-Vila, MD

  • Daisy C. Nieto, MD

  • Abdi Rasekh, MD

  • Payam Safavi-Naeini, MD

  • Samar Sheth, MD

  • Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD

The Planning Committee members have nothing to disclose.

The THI CME Staff have nothing to disclose.

The Program Reviewers have nothing to disclose.

Repurposing Statement

If you previously completed and received credit for the live CME-accredited symposium titled Sixth Annual Symposium on Risk, Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Women on January 9, 2016, please note that you will not receive credit for completing this activity. Participants who take part in an identical activity, even in order to validate learning or to clarify specific topics, cannot claim, nor will the Texas Heart Institute award, duplicate credit for the activity.

Method of Participation and Receipt of CME Certificate

To obtain CME credit for the Sixth Annual Cardiovascular Disease in Women, Texas Heart Institute Journal section, you must:

  1. Carefully read the CME-designated articles marked with a ★ in this issue of the Journal.

  2. Answer the assessment questions presented on page 328. A grade of 80% must be attained to receive CME credit.

  3. Complete a brief evaluation.

  4. Claim your CME credit by mailing the completed assessment and evaluation to:

    THI Office of CME, 6770 Bertner Ave., MC 3-276, Houston, TX 77030

  5. The THI Office of CME will grade the assessment, and, if the score is 80% or higher, a certificate indicating the number of credits/contact hours earned for participation in the program will be mailed to you at the address provided.


For assistance or feedback on this activity, please contact the Texas Heart Institute Office of CME at 832-355-9100 or by e-mail at cme@texasheart.org.