Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and death among women and men. Although a decrease in mortality rates among women has been well documented, progress still lags behind that in men. Meanwhile, mortality among younger women has increased alarmingly. Cardiovascular disease develops 7 to 10 years later in women than in men, but the prevalence of many risk factors among women is a growing concern. Women have an increased lifetime prevalence of stroke risk factors (including hypertension) and for abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, especially in middle age.

Greater life expectancy for women, together with improvements in primary and secondary prevention of CVD, will lead to increased numbers of women living with disease. Substantial sex differences in the burden of different manifestations of CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease, are widely recognized and must be addressed as new research and best practices are developed.

After this activity, the participant should be able to:

  • Cite and identify cardiac risk factors in women.

  • Review and clarify current guidelines for prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of heart disease and stroke in women.

  • Discuss and clarify cardiovascular risk stratification in female patients to guide preventive treatment.

  • Discuss and implement current and new diagnostic tools and techniques, and develop reliable diagnostic techniques.

  • Discuss challenges of health care related to cardiovascular treatment and research in women.

  • Review treatment and health promotion activities that typically require combined efforts from clinicians, the broader healthcare team, and the system in which health care is delivered, as well as patients.

Medical personnel who provide primary care for women, including obstetricians/gynecologists, internal medicine physicians, family practicioners, endocrinologists, nurses and nurse practitioners, and support staff.

Texas Heart Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Texas Heart Institute designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 3 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. The articles marked with a ★ are designated for CME credit.

April 1, 2020, through April 1, 2021.

The following individuals have reported no interest or other relationship(s) with companies that may be relevant to the educational content of this activity:

  • David Aguilar, MD

  • Faisal H. Cheema, MD

  • Briana T. Costello, MD

  • Aliza Hussain, MD

  • Efstratios Koutroumpakis, MD

  • Jing Liu, MD

  • Pranav Loyalka, MD

  • Keshava Rajagopal, MD

  • Anum Saeed, MD

  • Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD

  • George A. Younis, MD

The Planning Committee members have nothing to disclose.

The THI CME Staff have nothing to disclose.

The Program Reviewers have nothing to disclose.

If you previously completed and received credit for the live CME-accredited symposium titled 9th Annual Women's Heart & Vascular Symposium on January 26, 2019, please note that you will not receive credit for completing this activity. Participants who take part in an identical activity, even in order to validate learning or to clarify specific topics, cannot claim, nor will the Texas Heart Institute award, duplicate credit for the activity.

To obtain CME credit for the 9th Annual Women's Heart & Vascular Symposium, Texas Heart Institute Journal section, you must:

  1. Carefully read the CME-designated articles marked with a ★ in this issue of the Journal.

  2. Answer the assessment questions presented on page 134. A grade of 80% must be attained to receive CME credit.

  3. Complete a brief evaluation.

  4. Claim your CME credit by mailing the completed assessment and evaluation to:

    • THI Office of CME

    • 6770 Bertner Ave., MC 3-276

    • Houston, TX 77030

  5. The THI Office of CME will grade the assessment, and, if the score is 80% or higher, a certificate indicating the number of credits/contact hours earned for participation in the program will be mailed to you at the address you provide.

For assistance or feedback on this activity, please contact the Texas Heart Institute Office of CME by telephone (832-355-9100) or by email (