The meteorological factors involved in the formation of earlywood frost rings in Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) have not been described in detail. This study used 51 tree-ring dated Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine trees growing at ca. 3500 m a.s.l. on Mt. Goliath, Colorado, to develop earlywood and latewood frost ring chronologies dating from 1930 to 2010 for investigation of the regional and large-scale weather anomalies responsible for these unusual growing season freeze events. The high-elevation meteorological station at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, was used to document the daily temperature anomalies most likely associated with these frost-damaged rings. NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data were used to examine the synoptic meteorological conditions that tend to prevail during these unusual growing season temperature conditions. Earlywood frost rings occur during anomalous late-May and June freeze events in the Colorado Rockies associated with unseasonal mid-latitude circulation, including the penetration of a deep upper-level low pressure system and cold surface air temperatures into the west-central United States. The three latewood frost rings all occurred during September freeze events also associated with unseasonal and highly amplified mid-latitude circulation. The chronology of these early and late growing season freeze events may provide a useful independent check on daily temperature minima estimated with reanalysis techniques, and they can be extended into the pre-instrumental era thanks to the great age of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine. Frost damage in Mt. Goliath bristlecone pine appears to be most frequent and severe in young trees found in the depressed tree line below a large cirque subject to intense cold air drainage. The development of the most detailed tree-ring records of past freeze events may therefore benefit from site selection in these cold air drainages, along with age-stratified tree sampling to ensure that the young and most frost susceptible age classes are well represented throughout the chronology.

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