This report describes an international summer course, “Tree Rings, Climate, Natural Resources, and Human Interaction”, held in Cheriomushki, Russia, in the summer of 2018. The course was attended by 12 participants from six countries (Belgium, India, Lebanon, Poland, Russia, and South Africa) and instructors from the USA and included basic training in dendrochronology skills and dendroclimatology and dendroecology projects. This report focuses on a nested May–July Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction from annual rings of Pinus sylvestris trees growing in the region and also explores false-ring (FR) occurrence in samples collected during the course. Four chronologies, one developed during the course from Maina District, Khakassia, Russia are used in the reconstruction, which was based on principal component (PC) regression. The nested reconstruction demonstrated a strong statistical relationship between PDSI and tree-ring growth and allowed for an assessment of climate variability on both interannual and interdecadal time scales. FR occurrence in tree cores collected along an elevational transect from a site along the Yenisei River north of Cheriomushki was found to differ depending on the position of trees on the slope. The frequency of FRs and the location of the FR within the annual ring also appear to be related to seasonal precipitation anomalies.