The life expectancy of individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) has increased dramatically due to medical advances, and more individuals with SBM are living into adulthood than in previous decades. Despite increased life expectancy, individuals with SBM reach milestones associated with early adulthood at lower rates than those without SBM, including educational attainment, employment, living independently, and peer/romantic relationships. Thus, more support for developing independence and self-management skills in youth with SBM is needed.

Health care and advocacy organizations for individuals with SBM have identified supporting the transition to adulthood as a primary goal in pediatric settings. The factors that affect the transition to adulthood for youth with SBM must inform treatment approaches. Among these factors, cognitive functioning is a well-documented predictor of outcomes in adulthood, including educational and vocational attainment. Individuals with SBM are at risk for cognitive impairments due to primary neurologic injuries (e.g.,...

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