Neuromodulation via spinal stimulation is a promising therapy that can augment the neuromuscular capacity for voluntary movements, standing, stepping, and posture in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The spinal locomotor-related neuronal network known as a central pattern generator (CPG) can generate a stepping-like motor output in the absence of movement-related afferent signals from the limbs. Using epidural stimulation (EP) in conjunction with activity-based locomotor training (ABLT), the neural circuits can be neuromodulated to facilitate the recovery of locomotor functions in persons with SCI. Recently, transcutaneous spinal stimulation (scTS) has been developed as a noninvasive alternative to EP. Early studies of scTS at thoracolumbar, coccygeal, and cervical regions have demonstrated its effectiveness in producing voluntary leg movements, posture control, and independent standing and improving upper extremity function in adults with chronic SCI. In pediatric studies, the technology of spinal neuromodulation is not yet widespread. There are a limited number of publications reporting on the use of scTS in children and adolescents with either cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or SCI.

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