The effect of tread compound variation on tire treadwear was studied using bias and radial tires of two aspect ratios. Compound variations included types of rubber and carbon black as well as the levels of carbon black, process oil, and curatives. At low to moderate test severity, SBR and an SBR/BR blend performed better than NR while at high test severity NR and SBR were better than the SBR/BR blend. The SBR/BR blend was the best at low severity testing. Higher structure and higher surface area carbon black gave improved treadwear at all severity levels. The concept of a “frictional work intensity” as the primary determinant of treadwear index variation with test severity is proposed. Some factors which influence frictional work intensity are discussed.