Tire lateral force and aligning torque are the most significant determinants of automotive handling. Tread compound physical properties are important design parameters for determination of tire lateral force and aligning torque behavior.

This paper extends the published knowledge of the effects of tread compound physical properties on force and moment to cover the entire range of slip angles encountered in driving. Below 10 degrees slip angle lateral force increases with increasing compound stiffness and hysteresis. At and above 10 degrees slip angle there is a change in the general trend. In this range it appears that an optimal compound stiffness exists and that the hysteresis effect reverses. Aligning torque shows two distinctly different behaviors. One, like that governing lateral force in the general driving range, is valid below the peak of the aligning torque curve. The other, valid above the peak of the aligning torque curve, shows decreasing aligning torque with increasing tread stiffness and no hysteresis effect.

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