A three‐component model for a belted radial tire, previously developed by the authors for free rolling without slip, is generalized to include longitudinal forces and deformations associated with driving and braking. Surface tractions at the tire‐road interface are governed by a Coulomb friction law in which the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant.
After a brief review of the model, the mechanism of interfacial shear force generation is delineated and explored under traction with perfect adhesion. Addition of the friction law then leads to the inception of slide zones, which propagate through the footprint with increasing severity of maneuvers. Different behavior patterns under driving and braking are emphasized, with comparisons being given of sliding displacements, sliding velocities, and frictional work at the tire‐road interface.
As a further application of the model, the effect of friction coefficient and of test variables such as load, deflection, and inflation pressure on braking stiffness are computed and compared to analogous predictions on the braking spring rate.