The torque input of a pneumatic tire in various operating modes is analyzed and the tests required to determine the energy consumption of a tire are discussed. The effects of most operating variables (slip angle, longitudinal slip, vertical load, speed, and tire type) are illustrated by data obtained on the Calspan Tire Research Facility. The energy expended by the tires is combined with other vehicle losses, and the magnitude of possible fuel savings by the use of low‐loss tires is estimated.

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