ABSTRACT

The reduction in power train noise over the past decade has led to an increased focus in reducing tire/road noise, largely due to the environmental concerns related to road traffic noise in industrial countries. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations conducted using ANSYS FLUENT are presented here with the objective of understanding air-pumping noise-generation mechanisms due to tire/road interaction. The CFD model employs a large eddy simulation turbulence modeling approach, in which the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved to obtain temporally and spatially accurate near-field pressure fluctuations for a two-dimensional (2D) tire geometry with (1) one groove and (2) two grooves. In addition, the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic model is used to predict far-field acoustics. The deformation of the grooves, as the tire rotates, is represented by prescribed sidewall movements. Consequently, the solution to the numerical problem is obtained through a single process, thereby enabling the prediction of small-scale air pumping, horn effect, and far-field acoustics in a single simulation. The acoustic characteristics associated with air pumping are studied through spectral analysis tools, and comparisons show that the additional groove on the horn geometry alters the spectral characteristics of air pumping. Validation of the model is conducted through qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous studies. These simulations are intended to provide a deeper understanding about the small-scale noise generation as well as the near-field and far-field acoustics, thereby paving the way for the automotive manufacturer to compare a variety of air-related tire noise characteristics without spending time and money for vehicle pass-by tests.

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