Tires of passenger cars and other special tires are made of rubber compounds and reinforcing cords of different type to form a composite with distinct mechanical and thermal properties. One of the major load cases is the steady state rolling operation during the tire's service.
In this contribution, attention is paid to the strain and force state as well as the temperature distribution in the carcass cord layer of a steady state rolling tire. A simple benchmark tire geometry is considered, which is made of one rubber compound, one carcass cord layer (textile), and two belt cord layers (steel). From the given geometry, two tire designs are derived by using two distinct types of reinforcing cords (polyester and rayon) for the carcass cord layer. Subsequently, the two tire designs are subjected to three load cases with different inner pressure, vertical force, and translational velocity. The strain and the force state as well as the temperature distribution in the cords are computed via a thermomechanically coupled finite element simulation approach for each tire design and load case. To realistically capture the thermomechanical behavior of the cords, a temperature- and deformation-dependent nonlinear elastic cord model is proposed. The cord model parameters can be directly derived from data of cord tensile tests at different temperatures. Finally, cord design parameters (minimum and maximum strains and forces in the cords, maximum strain and force range per cycle, and maximum cord temperature) are summarized and compared. Additionally, the global vertical stiffness and the rolling resistance for each tire design are addressed.