Steering torque is a very important quantity for the driver's response. In fact, it gives the driver an idea of the road adherence condition during driving. Several models have been developed to simulate shear forces at the contact patch; most of them are based on semi-empirical tire models that account for slip and slip angles. They have good reliability when speed is high enough, but at very low speed, such as in parking, these models suffer from reliability and numerical issues. This paper presents a model to compute the steering moment due to contact patch friction at any longitudinal speed including pivot steering condition. In particular, it supplements the pivot steering model with a novel exponential decay of moment model to simulate steering moment for various wheel rolling speeds. The decay rate was found to be dependent upon contact patch geometry and rolling speed.

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