Over the past ten years the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been increasingly integrated into the tire design process. The FEA has been used to study the general tire behavior, to perform parameter studies, and to do comparative analyses. To decrease the tire development cycle, the FEA is now being used as a replacement for certain tire tests. This requires the accuracy of the FEA results to be within those test limits. This paper investigates some of the known modeling techniques and their impact on accuracy. Some of the issues are the use of shell elements, assumptions for boundary conditions, and global/local analysis approaches. Finally, the use of new generation supercomputers, massively parallel processing systems (MPP), is discussed.
Calculated and experimentally generated complex moduli of tire cord‐rubber composites are compared. Halpin‐Tsai equations in complex form are defined and used to calculate the elastic and loss components of the composite moduli. Additionally, stress‐strain relationships for bias ply composites are included. Experimental techniques consisted of prestrained cyclic tensile and torsional tests on tubular specimens. Composite properties of typical polyester and steel tire cord reinforcements were evaluated as functions of end count, cross‐ply angle, and thickness of rubber filler between plies.
A pantographing self‐adaptive gap element type contact strategy is presented. Due to the manner of its formulation, it can handle large deformations in the contact zone, contact initiation in a structure that has either positive or indefinite stiffness characteristics, kinematic and material nonlinearities, as well as self‐adaptive load (time) stepping. Contact in pre‐ and post‐buckling structures can be treated in this context. Several illustrative benchmark problems are given. These include coming into contact with a fiat surface, and involve large deformation kinematics and inelastic behavior as well as pre‐ and post‐buckling stiffness characteristics.