Willingness to pay (WTP) by avidity level. Column 2 shows the willingness to pay dollar value attached to each individual that fell into each avidity category. We labeled participants as follows: “avid” for those with both membership in a wildlife organization and onsite experience at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas; “frequent” for those with organization membership without onsite experience, “average” for those with onsite experience but no organization membership, and “occasional” for those with neither organization membership nor onsite experience. We included two additional categories to ensure a conservative estimate: “sporadic” for those on the extreme low end of the WTP range and “nonparticipants” with a WTP of zero dollars, resulting in six categories. We assigned each category a specific WTP value based on the methodology of Bowker and Stoll (1988) and adjusted for inflation. Data were collected on 17 June 2015.