We conducted the first country-wide survey between 1994 and 2002 to examine the distribution, abundance, and conservation status of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis nesiotes) populations throughout Cuba. Ground or air surveys or both were conducted at all identified potential areas and locations previously reported in the literature. We define the current distribution as 10 separate localities in six provinces and the estimated total number of cranes at 526 individuals for the country. Two populations reported in the literature were no longer present and two localities not previously reported were discovered. The actual number of cranes at two localities was not possible to evaluate due to their rarity. Only four areas (Isle of Youth, Matanzas, Ciego de Avila, and Sancti Spiritus) each support more than 70 cranes. The remaining locations each have less than 25 individuals. Sandhill Cranes appear to be declining and have almost disappeared in Pinar del Rio and Granma provinces, and in northern Matanzas Province. Identified threats to the remaining populations include habitat modification (woody plant encroachment, agricultural expansion, and fire suppression), predation due to wild hogs (Sus scrofa), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), mongoose (Crossarchus spp.), and poaching.

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