We examined support for the hypothesis that abundance of Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) increases with percentage of bottomland and upland forest, and decreases with percentage of developed land at a local-habitat scale (within a 250-m buffer) and increases with percentage of all forest at a landscape scale (within a 10-km buffer). We conducted surveys along 16 rivers in Missouri and Arkansas from 1999 to 2006 and related habitat and landscape factors to counts of Cerulean Warblers in 123 5-km segments on these rivers. We detected 576 singing male Cerulean Warblers and found support for both local and landscape effects on Cerulean Warbler abundance. Model fit was good with an average correlation of 0.841 between predicted and observed values based on an eight-fold cross-validation procedure. The abundance of Cerulean Warblers increased 390.7, 8.7, and 4.1 times across the observed range of forest within 10 km, bottomland forest within 250 m, and upland forest within 250 m, respectively. Conservation and research need to address large-scale forest patterns in addition to local habitat for Cerulean Warblers. Further research is needed on abundance patterns across riparian and upland forests and demographic rates in this part of their range.