We review the taxonomic history, external morphology, anatomy, behavior, distribution, and zoogeography of the Blue-headed Quail-Dove (Starnoenas cyanocephala), which is endemic to Cuba, and conclude that it is completely unlike any other New World member of the Columbidae. It presents a mosaic of characters shared with various genera in Australasia but is perhaps most similar to the Australian genus Geophaps and related terrestrial pigeons. The Blue-headed Quail-Dove should be placed in its own subfamily, Starnoenadinae, until its relationships with Australasian genera can be refined by additional data including molecular. We recommend that the English name be changed to Blue-headed Partridge-Dove.

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