Micro-endemic species are at greater risk of extinction because of their small populations and limited distribution. We conducted a breeding population survey of 3 little-known Mexican endemic bird species: Rose-bellied Bunting (Passerina rositae), Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow (Peucaea sumichrasti), and Orange-breasted Bunting (Passerina lechlancherii) in Sierra Tolistoque, Oaxaca. The purpose of the survey was to (a) determine the population density and size of these 3 species in the Sierra Tolistoque, (b) estimate the relative importance of various landscape features for each species, and (c) provide more rigorous scientific information to aid in the conservation and management of these species. In the case of Rose-bellied Bunting, we aimed to assess whether it prefers ravines over other landscape types during the breeding seasons, as stated in previous studies. Between late May and June 2012, we conducted point counts (n = 209) throughout the southern slope of the Sierra Tolistoque on the Pacific slope of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in Oaxaca, Mexico. Overall bird density was 0.98 birds/ha for Rose-bellied Bunting, 0.547 birds/ha for Orange-breasted Bunting, and 0.514 birds/ha for Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow. The estimated population in each landscape category showed that despite the existence of subtle interspecific preferences, hillsides are the major reservoirs for the 3 species. Rose-bellied Bunting did not occur in greater density in ravines compared to hillsides, which comprised more than twice the area of ravines. The importance of the Sierra Tolistoque for the long-term conservation of the 2 micro-endemic species is crucial considering our population estimates suggest that ∼30% of the estimated world population of Rose-bellied Bunting and Cinnamon-tailed Sparrow are found within the range of the Sierra Tolistoque.

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